Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit

What is URL?

URL or Uniform Resource Locator provides the unique location of the resource. Any element displayed on the world wide web has a unique URL dedicated to that element only. The user can access any webpage. The user can use the URL of the website to redirect to the website directly. For example, to directly visit the Tutorial and Example website, the user can directly type in the address bar of the browsing engine. The user can also redirect to a particular video with the help of using the URL of the video. Each video or image on the internet has a different URL. You can also create a hyperlink to different web pages using the URL of the webpage.

The Uniform Resource Location provides various information about the website to which it belongs:

  • It contains the name of the protocol implemented to access the website and its content. 
  • The user can also determine the server's location from the URL.
  • It may also contain the port number; this is not always present in the URL.
  • It also contains a fragment identifier.

Let’s take an example to understand this,; this tells the user that software-engineering-tutorial is a web page located on the server. The address of the server is

http or https

Two protocols are usually used to access the website. These are http:// or https://, which stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol, and the extras in the https://stand for secure.

This is a secure protocol for the information transmitted in an encrypted format. We use two forward slashes to separate the protocols from the rest of the website addresses (//).


The next part in the URL of a resource on the internet is www. It stands for World Wide Web. Though, it is not compulsory to write www. The user can access the website without mentioning it. This part specifies that the resource is available on the web. To access the website, the user can also use

This part of the website is the server and the domain name; the .com is the suffix to the domain name. They determine the location or the organization type that is using the website. The user can access the websites with all domain names. For example, .in stands for India. Any official government website in India uses .gov. It acts as a security feature; as this domain name is reserved for the official government website, no one else can create a website with it. The domain name .com stands for commercial and is used by commercial websites worldwide. Anybody who wants to upload their website on the internet needs to purchase a domain name.


This specifies the name of the element of the web page. The structure of most of the webpages available on the internet has .htm or .html as the extension. There are also videos and images available on the internet. These files can have the following extensions such as .jpg or .gif.

Location of the Uniform Resource Locator

The user can see the website's address in the address bar at the top of the web browser. Google was the first search engine that merged both the address bar of the website and the web browser's search bar. On computers or laptops, the URL is available on the top for the website currently displayed on the screen. It is not only visible when the web site's content is displayed on full screen. On the smartphone, the URL is available at the top of the website, but when the user scrolls down the website's contents, the URL was the website disappears. The user can see the URL by scrolling up the webpage a little. The user can click on the address bar of the web browser to read the complete URL of the website.

Characters in the URL

While typing the URL in the address bar, the user needs to ensure that there is no space between the URL characters. A URL can have alphanumeric characters, but only a few symbols can be directly used in a website. These symbols are !$-_+()*'. The user needs to encode the URL to use any other symbol mentioned above. You can refer to RFC 1738 document to read more about it.

Is URL and the IP address the same?

The web address of the website or the URL is different from the IP address. The URL is the unique address assigned to any element on the internet. At the same time, the IP address is given to a device that can access the service. Any device that is a part of the worldwide web is provided with a unique address to differentiate the device from other on the network. The URL of the webpage is converted into the IP address by DNS. This enables the routers in the network to locate the servers on the web. An IP address is a numeric address that is difficult to remember. Therefore, we use a domain name that the user can easily remember.

Additional Functions of URL

The URL can have additional information attached at the end of it. This information is available in the URL when the URL points to a script. This additional information is called the parameters of the URL. An example of the parameter is the query parameter: this parameter is available at the end of the URL when the user makes a query in the search engine. The parameter contains the additional keywords that were in the query. 

Why do we use the URL?

  • The URL is easier to use than using the IP address. They can be easily remembered, and the user can quickly access the website or content using them.
  • They provide additional to the user. The user also can change the website with just one click.
  • It tells the user a lot about the location of the resource. It provides specific instructions about how to access a resource.
  • When the user searches anything on the web browser, the user can always check the query parameter to see the keywords for which the browser provides the results.
  • A domain name of the website tells the nature of the website and the authority to which it belongs.

What is Uniform Resource Location Redirect?

This is a feature provided by the web server that takes the URL from the user and directs it to another URL. This is very useful when the administrator wants to build a new website and replace the old one. Then the user can redirect the traffic on the previous website to the new website. Different types of redirect can be used to transfer from one website to another using the URL. Some of the redirects are manual redirects, JavaScript, meta tag refreshes, etc. This is also called URL forwarding or domain forwarding, as the old URL is forwarded to the new URL. 

This feature is used for the following purposes:

  • It is used to join two websites. The user can combine two websites without requiring to code the entire website again.
  • It is useful when the user wishes to change the organization's name as the user can redirect the traffic on the previous website to the updated website.
  • It is used to update the web site's content; the user can update the content by sending the user updated content.
  • They are used while performing the testing of the application in the market. This is used in page-split testing.

Disadvantages of URL Redirect

The attacker collects the user's confidential information using a URL redirect. Attackers use them on the web. This cause problem for both the organization and the user. It is actively used in illegal activities such as phishing, where the user is redirected to a fake website that is made similar to the original website. Most modern search engines take preventive measures to stop these attempts of fraud. The most used method to redirect a website is HTTP protocol 3XX series. The series consists of various attributes. Each number indicates certain functions such as:

  • 300: This number has a wide range of choices to redirect the website. The user can choose among various languages.
  • 301: When the user permanently changes the website to another website. This is done when the business name is changed, or the business partners are. The user needs to use this number in such a case.
  • 302: This is used when the website is redirected to any other non-specific website.
  • 303: This is used to display the result of the common gateway interface script.
  • 307: this is used to redirect when the website is being redesigned.

Working on URL Redirect

When the user performs URL Redirect on a website, the website address of the previous website is assigned a new URL. The visitor using the previous address will be redirected to the new website using the new URL. In commercial websites, the homepage is usually converted into a redirect page. They use concurrent messaging that explains the redirect, and the homepage is changed into the redirect page. They also add a meta tag in the source code of the website. This meta tag is not visible to the visitor. If the redirect is not performed properly, it will display a 404- Page Not Found error.

Various techniques to redirect the URL

  • 301 Redirect: This instructs the web browser to always redirect a website to another location. This is a permanent type of redirect. This is one of the most used methods to redirect a website. This is usually used when the user discards a website and develops a new web application; it redirects the traffic from the previous site to the new one. This is used in commercial websites when the website is moved to a new address.

The user can also perform a redirect by using programming languages. Using certain languages, the user can make amendments to the website's pages. This way of redirecting is beneficial for SEO. 

  • 302 Redirect: This is used to temporarily redirect the website to a new location. They are not used often. This is used when the URL of the website is changed to a different address. It uses different HTML status codes to redirect the website. This does not add the new website to the search history as it indexes the original URL and not the updated URL. Its implementation is different in different web browsers.
  • 303 Redirect: This is also called the HTTP 303 redirect; it is implemented to respond to a request for a URI. The user is required to implement the GET method to access the address of the final destination if the request is made for some other URI. This redirect has a defined syntax that must be used to implement it.

Application of URL Redirect

For copying the content of the website

If the user wants to use the same content on multiple pages, they can implement a redirect rather than coding for it again.

When you have changed the domain

When the user wants to change the domain name of the existing website, the user can use this function to prevent the loss of built links.

Having Multiple Domain

The company purchases all the domain names for their website to prevent fraud nowadays. They can use the redirect to transport the user from one domain to another. This also increases the traffic on the website that occurs due to spelling mistakes made by the user.