Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)?

What is a File System?

A file system is a method that is responsible for managing the space and the data on the system's storage unit. It is also known as the file manager. The file system's data is stored in the form of files called directories. A file system is the logical representation of the driver. It is the digital representation of the hard disk. The firmware software is responsible for performing the internal operation on the disk. From the file system, the user can check the previous versions of the file system and manage the disk's capacity and security.

Many types of file management systems are available in the market, but the most popular and commonly used file system is NTFS. The file system can also manage the files ensuring that no more than one file with the same name exist in the same folder. The file system provides the user with many useful features. It also creates a recovery of each file, making it possible to recover the file even when it is once deleted from the system.

Most importantly, a file system provides a structure to the directories and ensures the data is properly stored. The user can also view all the files stored in the current directory using the file system. A file system is maintained in a hierarchical structure. 

Let us see what a file system looks like and what functions can be performed using the file system.

Below is the image of a hard disk drive file system.

What is a File System

A Hard Disk Drive has its file system. It does not matter what type of hard drive it is or what the software serves the purpose. It contains various information such as the drive's name, total capacity, space used, and free space available on the disk. It also contains the name of each file and its location and states the method to open the file and access the data stored on the hard drive.

It is also responsible for performing operations such as storing the metadata, naming the file, and managing the storage, directories, or the file system.

In the latest storage devices, the file is stored in the form of sectors, and multiple files are combined to form a combination of these sectors called the blocks. The user can identify the name and location of any file stored in the device using the file system.

One of the important tasks the sector performs is finding the sector that the user can use. Most of the operating systems support either the FAT or NTFS file system. In the above image, you can see that the driver has NTFS File System. A certain operating system such as iOS uses HFS+ and other different file systems.

Sometimes, the term file system does not indicate the file system but is used for the partitions. For example, some people usually say that the particular disk has two different file systems or that it uses two file systems. But to be clear, it does not mean that the entire disk is divided into parts, and each part has a file system. Rather, it means that the disk has two partitions that use the same physical disk.

Most software programs must have a file system to perform their functions properly, meaning each partition must have the firmware. For a program to run on a different device, both the devices must use the same file system. For example: if you have installed software supported by macOS, it won't be possible to use the same program on a Windows or Android OS. It is because that program is file dependent.

Various File Systems

There are various file systems available, some are as follows:


This file system was designed to be implemented for hard drives. It was launched in 1977 and is an abbreviation for File Allocation Table. It uses 12 or 16 bits to store each cluster access in the table. It is used in Windows Operating System. The primary role of FAT is to manage the files or directories stored in the hard drives and other computer systems. It is also used in portable devices such as digital cameras and flash memory and records the information about the files stored in the drive.

It is a usable firmware software and increases the hard drive's life expectancy. It does so by minimizing the wear and tear on the hard drive by effectively managing the resources on the disk. Nowadays, the latest operating system no more uses the FAT file system; instead, they are replaced by NTFS. The later versions, such as Windows XP, Vista, 7, and 10, use NTFS. There are different file allocation tables, such as FAT8, FAT16, and FAT32.


It stands for Global File System. This file system is usually used when the user requires to share the resources on multiple computers as it allows them to work as a single unit. It enables the computers that are separated by a large distance to directly share the files. It also allows the user to manage the I/O to save the file system. It was developed at the University of Minnesota, but Red Hat oversees the maintenance of this file system.


HFS is an abbreviation for Hierarchical File System that was particularly developed for macOS. The primary function performed by the HFS was arranging and storing the files in the hard disk installed in the mac system. It creates a directory whenever there is any change in the hard disk. The user cannot make any change to the HFS disk. It does not support write or format after the release of OS X in the market. Moreover, these drives are also not supported by any other operating system, which means you can use these files in a system with any other OS installed.


It is the abbreviation for NT File System. It is one of the most used file systems and is supported by all the Windows Operating systems after the Windows NT. Before, Windows used the GFS file system, but nowadays, it has been completely replaced by the NTFS. It may also be referred to as the New Technology File System. It is preferred so much because it is comparatively more user-friendly. It also provides certain improved features than FAT and HPFS. It is easier to recover the file in NTFS than in other systems. It also provided better security and data protection provisions. The extensibility and the performance of the software also increased significantly.


In 1995, the Optical Storage Technology Organization released the Universal Disk Format. The aim behind the development of UDF was to provide a file system to ensure that the data remains consistent when the written operation is being performed on several optical media devices. This was mainly used to maintain the files stored in CDs and DVDs. Therefore, it is installed on the CD drivers and is supported by all operating systems. It is essential to perform packet writing on the CD.

Architecture of the File System

A file system is a multi-layered software generally (2-3 layers). Each layer can either work independently or sometimes they even work as a single unit. The logical component of the file system is responsible for providing an Application Program Interface (API) for smooth file operation performance.

This operation includes functions such as OPEN, READ, and WRITE the file. It is user-friendly and therefore is used to interact with the user. The logical layer is the topmost layer. It processes and forwards the user request to the file system's lower layer. The second layer is optional and is not available in many file systems. The work of the second layer is to provide support for multiple concurrent instances of physical file systems. This increases efficiency and allows the performing of multiple tasks simultaneously. It creates a virtual file system where each instance is considered an individual file system implementation.

The third or the bottom-most layer is the physical layer of the file system that deals with memory management and manages the buffering in the data transmission. The physical operation is performed and handled by this layer. It is concerned with the operations associated with the storage device and ensuring that the processed physical blocks are read or written on the memory. It interacts between the channel and the driver in the device to drive the storage in the system.

Different types of File Systems

The file system can be classified into various types depending upon the type of driver or its functioning. Some of the file systems are mentioned below:

  1. Disk File System
    As the name suggests, the system on the disk can randomly address the data. It also anticipates allowing the driver to quickly access the data stored in the disk. For any other file system, it requires a lot of time to address the data on the disk, whereas this system can perform the task in less time. Since it does not store the data sequentially, different users can store and access the data on the disk simultaneously by using DFS.
  2. Flash File System
    It is used for managing the flash memory in the system. The primary function of the flash file system is to implement restrictions, increase the performance and provide additional features to the flash memory. It is beneficial to use the flash file system for the flash system. DFS can also be used for flash memory devices, but it is not very efficient and hence not advised.
  3. Tape File System
    Tape is also a type of storage media though it is hardly used nowadays. A tape file system allows the user to store the files on the tape. Magnetic tapes are preferred over CDs and DVDs as the user can access the data stored in the tape even after a long time. It was easy to preserve the data stored in the magnetic tape. The creation and preservation of the data was a major hurdle for general file purposes that the tape file system overcame.
  4. Database File Systems
    Databases are a popular way of storing data. A database file management data is used to store the data in the form of databases rather than storing the data in a hierarchical structure. In Database File System, the data is organized using the different characteristics of the data. For example: if the data is about the books in the library, it will be stored based on the author or genre of the book.
  5. Transactional File System
    This system allows the user to perform two or more file system operations simultaneously by implementing the operations as a transaction. The application specifies whether it wants to operate normally or as a transaction. In case when the operation is performed as a transaction, a control is provided to the program.
    Certain programs may require several changes in the file system, and if they fail to perform all the changes, it may harm the system as that may corrupt the system or leave it in a suspended state. This situation can be prevented using the transactional file system. For example, if the software can change the configuration files or amend the executable when performing an update on the system. But the software is interrupted in between, and the pupation cannot be complemented. This may lead to the failure of the entire system.
  6. Network File System
    It is generally not used on personal computers. The clients that provide file system-like services include FTP, WebDAV, NFS, etc. They are designed to provide access to the file stored on the servers. This enables the user to remotely access the data stored in the central servers using proper credentials. The remote system uses the local interface to establish the connection. Once the link is established, the system program can easily create, update or access the files and directories available on the server.
  7. Shared Disk File System
    This file system is used when multiple systems depend on a single external disk to store the data. It allows all the machines to access the disk subsystem, which otherwise can lead to collisions and traffic. It determines which subsystem will access the external disk to prevent collisions. It allows efficient transmission of data in this scenario. It is also cost-effective as the user must invest in only one external disk subsystem to run many machines.
  8. Minimal File System
    In the 1970s, when the microcomputers were launched in the market and made available to the general public, storage was always an issue. It means that the storage devices had very limited capacity, and devices such as disks and digital tapes were too expensive to be afforded by the people. New cheaper storage media devices such as audio cassettes were introduced to overcome this hurdle. The minimal file system was developed to manage the file operations in the audio cassette tape. It was a cheap yet effective replacement for the expensive magnetic tapes. All instructions to operate the cassette recorder were provided on it. The user can click the record button to write the data on the cassette, and the user was required to press play to read the data from it. The user pressed enter from the keyword to stop the read or write operation.
  9. Flat File System
    There are no subdirectories in flat systems, meaning the data is not stored hierarchically. All the file and the data is stored in a single directory. This system is no longer in use because of the limited storage of the single directory. This system was implemented when we used storage devices such as a floppy disk with equivalent storage to a single directory.