Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)?

What is Code?

Code refers to a set of instructions that a computer can understand and execute. These instructions are written in a programming language, which is a formal language used to communicate with a computer. There are many different programming languages, each with syntax, rules, and capabilities.

What is Code

Programmers and developers write code, and when the computer executes it; it performs a wide variety of tasks, such as displaying text on a screen, performing calculations, connecting to the internet, and more.

Not all code is created equal, and its quality and security can vary greatly depending on the developer's skill and experience. It can also greatly impact the system's performance and safety.

Origin of Code

The origin of code can be traced back to the invention of the first computers in the 1940s. Early computers were programmed using machine code, a set of instructions directly executed by the computer's hardware. These instructions were written in binary, a system of digits consisting of 0s and 1s, that the computer could understand.

However, the need for more human-readable languages became apparent as computers became more powerful and versatile. This led to development of high-level programming languages, such as FORTRAN and COBOL, which allowed programmers to write code using English-like commands and mathematical notations.

The first computer programs were written during this time to perform specific tasks such as scientific research, military operations, and business data processing.

The first computer programs were developed as a part of the early computing machines, such as the abacus, the Jacquard loom, and the difference engine, which were used to perform calculations and automated tasks.

Over time, more and more programming languages were created, each with its strengths and weaknesses. Today, hundreds of programming languages are in use, with new ones being developed all the time.

Basic Concepts of Coding

Coding, or programming, creates software, applications, and computer programs using a specific programming language. The basic concepts of coding include the following:

1) Syntax: The set of rules and structure that must be followed when writing code in a specific programming language.

2) Variables: A named storage location for data that can be modified and reused throughout a program.

3) Data types: Different types of data, such as numbers, strings, and Boolean values, can be used in a program.

4) Control structures: Ways to control the flow of a program, such as loops and conditional statements.

5) Functions: A reusable block of code that performs a specific task.

6) Libraries and frameworks: Pre-written code that can perform common tasks, such as handling user input or accessing databases.

7) Debugging: The process of identifying and correcting errors in code.

8) Algorithms: A set of steps or instructions that can be followed to solve a problem.

These concepts are fundamental to all programming languages, and a basic understanding of them is essential for anyone learning to code.

Advantages of Code

Code, or computer programming, offers many advantages, including:

1) Automation: Code can be used to automate repetitive or time-consuming tasks, allowing people to focus on more important and complex tasks.

2) Efficiency: Code can execute tasks much faster and more accurately than humans, making it an efficient tool for many applications.

3) Scalability: Code can be easily scaled up or down to accommodate changes in demand, making it a flexible tool for businesses and organizations.

4) Reusability: Code can be reused in multiple projects, saving time and effort in development.

5) Standardization: Code can provide a standardized way of doing things, reducing errors and improving consistency.

6) Innovation: Code allows for the creation of new and innovative software applications and technologies that can change how we live and work.

7) Customization: Code can be customized to meet specific requirements or preferences, allowing for greater software applications and systems personalization.

Code is a powerful tool that offers many advantages for businesses, organizations, and individuals. It has become an essential part of modern life and is used in various applications, from simple scripts to complex software systems.

Limitations of Code

There are several limitations to code, including:

1) Creativity: While code can automate repetitive tasks and solve complex problems, it could be more creative. Using code to develop new and innovative ideas that push the boundaries of what is currently possible can be challenging.

2) Dependency on Tools and Frameworks: Code often relies on specific tools and frameworks to function, limiting the code's flexibility and adaptability. Changes to the underlying tools or frameworks can require significant changes to the code itself.

3) Lack of Human Touch: Code is written in a language that is designed for computers rather than humans. This can make it difficult to create code that is easy to understand, maintain, and modify.

4) Limited Understanding of Context: Code is limited in understanding context and nuance. Creating code that considers the full range of human experience and behavior can be challenging.

5) Errors and Bugs: Code can contain errors and bugs that can cause the software to malfunction or fail. These issues can be difficult to identify and fix, leading to high costs and delays.

6) Dependence on Infrastructure: Code depends on infrastructure, such as servers, networks, and databases, to function. Issues with the underlying infrastructure can cause problems with the code.

7) Limitations of Programming Languages: Different programming languages have different strengths and weaknesses and may need to be better suited to all applications or projects.

While code can be a powerful tool for automating tasks and solving complex problems, it has its limitations. It is important to carefully consider these limitations when deciding whether or not to use code for a particular application or project.

Types of Code in Programming

There are several types of code used in programming, including:

1) Source code: The original human-readable code that programmers write in a programming language.

2) Machine code: The binary code executed by a computer's processor. A compiler or interpreter from the source code generates machine code.

3) Bytecode: An intermediate code form used in some programming languages, such as Java. A virtual machine executes bytecode rather than directly by the computer's processor.

4) Scripting code: A type of code used to automate tasks or add functionality to a larger program. Examples of scripting languages include Python, JavaScript, and Ruby.

5) Markup code: A type of code used to format text and other elements in a document, such as HTML, XML, and LaTeX.

6) Object code: Compiled code must still be linked into a final executable program.

7) Assembly code: A low-level programming language used to write code very close to the machine code that the computer's processor executes.

These are just a few examples of the many types of code used in programming. The kind of code a programmer uses will depend on the specific programming language and the project's requirements.

Why Should You learn to Code?

What is Code

There are several reasons why someone may choose to learn to code:

1) Career opportunities: Many jobs in the technology industry require coding knowledge, including software development, web development, data analysis, and cybersecurity. Learning to code can open up many career opportunities with good earning potential.

2) Problem-solving: Coding is a valuable skill for problem-solving and critical thinking. It teaches you to break down a problem into smaller parts and find a logical solution.

3) Creativity: Coding allows you to bring your ideas to life by creating your software, websites, and applications. It's a great way to express your creativity and make something unique.

4) Demand in the job market: The need for skilled developers is increasing as the world becomes more digitalized. Coding will help you be more marketable and valuable in the job market.

5) Entrepreneurship: Coding can help you create your startup or business. The ability to code gives you the power to build and launch your products and ideas.

6) Understanding of technology: Understanding how code works can give you a better understanding of how technology works and shapes our world.

Learning to code can open up many opportunities and help you develop valuable skills that can be applied in various fields.

How to Start Coding

Here are a few steps which can help you to start coding:

1) Choose a programming language: Many programming languages, such as Python, Java, C++, and JavaScript. Each has strengths and weaknesses, so research to find the best one for your needs.

2) Set up a development environment: You will need a text editor or integrated development environment (IDE) to write and edit your code. Some popular options include Visual Studio Code, Sublime Text, and Atom.

3) Learn the basics: Learn the basic programming concepts such as variables, data types, loops, and control flow. You can find many resources online, such as tutorials, videos, and documentation.

4) Write your first program: Start with a simple program, such as a "Hello, World!" program, to get a feel for the basics of the language.

5) Practice, practice, practice: The more you practice writing code, the better you will become at it. Try working on small projects or participating in online coding challenges to improve your skills.

6) Learn by doing: Try to find a real-life problem and try to solve it by coding; this way, you can apply your knowledge in practice and learn from it.

Different Coding Language

What is Code

There are many programming languages, each with strengths and weaknesses. Some of the most popular programming languages include:

1) Python: A high-level, interpreted language that is easy to learn and widely used for web development, data science, artificial intelligence, and scientific computing.

2) Java: Java is a popular, object-oriented language for developing enterprise-level applications and Android mobile apps.

3) C++: C++ is a high-performance language for system programming, video game development, operating systems, and low-level applications.

4) JavaScript: A high-level, interpreted language used primarily for creating interactive front-end web applications and browser scripting.

5) C#: An object-oriented language developed by Microsoft and commonly used for creating Windows desktop and mobile apps.

6) C: A low-level language used for system programming and embedded systems.

7) PHP: It is a server-side scripting language for creating dynamic web pages and applications.

8) Swift: A general-purpose, object-oriented language developed by Apple and commonly used for creating iOS and macOS applications.

9) R: A data analysis and statistics language commonly used in finance, healthcare, and social sciences.

10) SQL: A domain-specific language used for managing and manipulating relational databases.

These are just a few examples, and many other programming languages are used in various fields. Choosing the right wording for your project depends on the specific requirements and goals of the project.

Different Ways to Write Code

There are many different ways to write code, depending on the specific requirements and goals of the project. Some examples include:

1) Text editors: Using a text editor, such as Notepad or Sublime Text, to write code by hand. This is a common method for writing code and allows for full control over the code.

2) Integrated Development Environments (IDEs): Using a specialized software application like Visual Studio or Eclipse to write code. IDEs typically include code highlighting, debugging, and code completion.

What is Code

3) Online code editors: Using an online code editor, such as CodePen or JSFiddle, to write code. This method allows for easy sharing and collaboration and often includes features such as real-time preview and version control.

What is Code

4) Voice recognition: Using voice recognition software, such as Dragon NaturallySpeaking or Google Docs voice typing, to write code using voice commands. This is a time-saving method that is suitable for people with mobility impairments.

5) Block-based coding: Using a visual interface, such as Scratch or App Inventor, to write code by dragging and dropping code blocks instead of writing text. This method is suitable for beginners or children.

6) Code generators: Using a tool or software that automatically generates code, such as a code scaffolder or library. This method can save time and effort, but the generated code may need to be customized to fit the project's specific requirements.

7) Low-code/no-code platforms: Using a visual interface that allows the user to create applications without writing any code, like drag-and-drop tools, forms, and workflows. This method is suitable for people with little to no coding experience.

The method chosen will depend on the project's specific requirements, the developer's skills, and the desired outcome.