Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit

What is Printer?

Printer is a hardware equipment that can be connected to a system. It can take textual and graphical content from the system and display it on a medium. It allows the user to print a hard copy of the digital content available on the system. The printer can have different sizes, speeds, resolutions, and specifications depending on the purpose they need to serve. The printers can also be further classified into impact and non-impact printers. Both these printers are generally used for personal use.

What Is Printer

Impact Printer: The printing cost is relatively low for these printers, making them a popular choice for personal use. They are somewhat similar to that of a typewriter as for every character that is to be printed, and an ink impression is made on the sheet. An example of an impact printer is a dot-matrix printer. 

Non-Impact Printer: The printing cost is higher, but so is the resolution of the printed content. 

Inkjet printers and laser printers are two popular printers. The ink is spread on the page, while the laser printer uses a laser to extract the ink from the paper.

Types of Printers

The most popular printers available in the market for personal use are Inject Printer and Laser Printer. With the advancement in technology, a series of printers were developed to accomplish different objectives.

Below is the list of all the available printers in the market.

  • Plotter
  • Dot Matrix Printer
  • Line Printer
  • Solid Ink Printer
  • Inkjet Printer
  • Laser Printer
  • LED Printer
  • Multifunction Printer
  • Thermal Printer


What Is Printer

It is hardware equipment that performs the same role as a printer but is quite different in function, unlike other printers that use ink to print the content. It uses a pen or pencil to print vector graphics. This was preferred to print the architectural layout or the schematics. It was one of the most primitive devices that allowed the user to get a hard copy.

The plotter can be further classified into:

  • Drum Plotter: The page is rolled on the drum, and the marker moves about the drum, printing the content on the page. The drum moves back and forth while the marker moves horizontally along the drum.
  • Electrostatic Plotter: The sheet is provided with a negative charge, and the ink that is to be spread on the sheet is charged positively. The ink is attracted by the electrostatic force produced and is spread on the sheet.
  • Cutting Plotter: This is a relatively advanced type of printer; it allows the user to print shapes and objects out of it. This is preferred for making signboards.

Advantages of using a Plotter

  • The quality of the image produced is relatively better.
  • The user can produce the images on a larger sheet of paper. It also allows the user to print the content on any flat surface.
  • It provides the option of storing frequently used images or templates on the disk.
  • The quality of the image is not compromised, even if produced multiple times.

Disadvantages of Plotter

  • It is difficult to set up and requires a large amount of space.
  • The cost of printing and maintenance is more expensive than other printers.
  • It is not suitable for personal use.

Dot Matrix Printer

What Is Printer

This printer is also known as the pin printer because it uses pin-like structures called heads to create an impression on the page to form the texts or images. It was developed by IBM in 1957 and was a non-impact printer. It was in 1970 when a non-impact version of the Dot-Matrix Printer was launched by Centronics. The resolution of the image printed by this printer was low. Therefore, it was preferred to print non-reusable textual content such as package delivery invoices.

Advantages of Dot-Matrix Printer

  • The major advantage of this printer is its low printing cost. This printer can be easily purchased from the shops.
  • It is easy to set up a dot-matrix printer, and the maintenance cost is also low.
  • The image produced may lack quality, but they are the exact copy of the original image.

Disadvantages of Dot-Matrix Printer

  • It takes quite a time to even print a single page as every impression is created by head hitting the paper.
  • The quality of the resulting hard copy is quite low.
  • The user needs to ensure that each sheet is correctly oriented and the alignment of the sheet is performed manually.
  • It produces a continuous noise while printing; this is the noise of a pin colliding with the page.

Solid Ink Printers

What Is Printer

The objective of developing this printer was to save space and money. It reduces the wastage of ink that happens while spraying the ink on a sheet. These printers stream the ink along with the page. They are different from conventional printers as they use melted ink to print the content. The image produced provides a better colour combination. The cartilages required for this printer are different. Tektronix first launched it.

Advantages of Solid Ink Printers

  • The picture produced is of high resolution. The colours are bright and vivid. We can print high-quality content on a range of flat sheets.
  • The cartridges are biodegradable and are not harmful to humans. The inks are prepared with vegetable oils and do not melt or leak.
  • The printing speed is high. We can print one piece of paper per minute.
  • It is easy to maintain, and the ink can be replaced easily. Moreover, the printing cost is also quite low. The space required to set up a Solid Ink Printer is very less.

Disadvantages of Solid Ink Printers:

  • We cannot produce numerous pages in one go as it requires cool downtime.
  • The printed content may fade with time.
  • The electricity consumption is more than the laser printer.

Inkjet Printers

What Is Printer

They are quite suitable for personal use. It is a popular choice that is used in both homes and industries. The printing process involves spraying the ink using magnetic plates on the paper. It has five components: a paper feed assembly, print head, cartridge, belt, and stabilizer belt. The cartridge can produce a combination of colors providing a high-quality output with a vivid picture display. The printing cost is less than any other printer available on the market.

Advantages of using Inkjet Printers

  • Users can generate high-quality output with vivid colour displays.
  • The printing speed is high.
  • They are easy to use and do not require time to warm up or cool down.

Disadvantages of using Inkjet Printers

  • It may generate an early notification of an empty cartridge.
  • It does not support the highlighting of the text.

Laser Printer

What Is Printer

This printer was developed in 1971; the printing technology is based on the application of laser. The printer generates an electric charge that produces a laser beam that produces the drum's print. The drum is then rolled into the dry ink, and then the ink is transferred to the piece of paper. Once the content is printed on the paper, then the drum is discharged.

Differentiate between Laser and Inkjet Printer

Based onLaser PrinterInkjet Printer
CartridgeThe ink is in powder form.Wet ink is sprayed over the sheet.
Cost of PrintingThe cost of printing is quite low.The printing cost is very high.
Quality when the sheet is wetThe quality is not compromised even if the sheet is wet.If the surface is wet then the print will be blurred.

Advantages of a Laser Printer

  • Numerous pages can be printed at once.
  • The speed of the printer is very high.
  • It is cheap as well as the productivity of the printer is high.

Disadvantages of a Laser Printer:

  • It produces a small amount of carbon.
  • It requires more space to set up.
  • It sometimes requires warming up.

LED Printers
The technology used in the LED printer is similar to a laser printer. The light emitted from the diode is focused along the length of the drum. The only difference between a laser printer and an LED printer is that it uses light-emitting diodes, while the laser printer is equipped with a laser in the print head. They are a relatively newer technology that is eventually getting popular in the market.

What Is Printer

Advantages of Using LED Printer

  • The user can extend the warranty of the printer.
  • The manufacturing cost is relatively less than that of the laser printer.
  • It can print on 3D objects too.

Multifunction Printer

What Is Printer

This printer is also known as an All-in-One printer. This single device allows the user to print, scan, photocopy and fax the content. The printing cost is low, and the company can reduce the cost of multiple hardware by purchasing it. It reduces the complexity of the workflow.

Advantages of Multifunction Printers

  • It reduces the number of hardware required to perform different functions.
  • The space required is very less, as a single machine can perform the functions of a printer, a fax machine, and a scanner.
  • The speed of operation is relatively higher than any other printing device available.
  • The cost of setting up a Multifunction printer is very less in comparison with the cost of setting up individual machines.

Disadvantages of using a Multifunction Printer

  • It consumes more ink; therefore, these printers' printing cost is high.
  • It prints the pages in a first-come, first-serve order.
  • We cannot assign priority to a task; all the tasks are lined up in a queue. Therefore, it is not possible to simultaneously complete the work.
  • There is a single machine performing all the tasks; if the machine breaks down, all the process in the organization is halted.

3D Printers

What Is Printer

This is the most advance and innovative technology. The first 3D printer was introduced in 1984. This printer has a wide range of applications in the engineering, the automobile industry and the medical field. It can be used to create 3-dimensional models, prototypes, or reconstruct parts. It can also be used to produce spare parts that are not manufactured now. Special software is used to design the objects that can be printed using a 3D Printer. The prototype of the final object is created using Computer-aided design software. This prototype is generated in a 3D environment and has 3 dimensions. This is sent to the printer, and the printer creates the object not at once but layer by layer.

Advantages of 3D Printer

  • It allows the developer to develop a 3D model for better understanding.
  • It is a cost-efficient method to produce the model of the object.
  • It is easily accessible, and the quality of the product is high.
  • The product has exact dimensions as specified by the user; the user can incorporate numerous shapes in the product.

Disadvantages of 3D Printer

  • This technology is under development. There are certain limits to the design that it can produce and the material used for producing the models.
  • The process is very time-consuming and expands a lot of energy compared with traditional methods.
  • The initial cost is high and cannot be used for mass production.

Thermal Printer

What Is Printer

This printer is also known as the electro-thermal printer. The electricity is to produce heat in the pins. These pins hit the paper to produce the image. They do not require ink to produce the image. The image is directly produced from the heated image. The cost of printing is very low and is used in sectors where time is of the essence. The sectors that use the technology are airlines, banking, and entertainment.

Advantages of using a Thermal Printer

  • There is no halt in the printing process till the machine is connected to the electricity supply as it does not require any ink or ribbons.
  • The set-up is very simple as only limited operations are required to be performed.
  • While printing, it does not produce any noise, so it is most suitable for offices and corporations.
  • They are cheap, and the speed to print monochromic print is relatively very high from other printers.

Disadvantages of using a Thermal Printer

  • It is not suitable for printing colour prints.
  • The continuous heating of the print head can lead to its wear and tear. So when once broken then we need to replace it.

Printer Interface

In previous models, there were 36 plugs, but to reduce the size of the new models, these plugs were replaced with USB drives. The interface for the Printer I/O operations includes:

  • Printer Languages: These are the commands sent from the computer to the printer specifying the content and its properties, including the colour and dimensions that are to be printed. Mostly, the commands are written in either Postscript language or Printer Control Language.
  • Postscript Language: This language can be understood by humans as it uses English phrases to instruct the printer about the appearance of the content. Adobe launched this language in 1985. It was introduced with additional features such as vector graphics and outline fonts. The user does not need to install the language explicitly. It comes already installed and can be used for any device that produces an image using printheads or dots.
  • Printer Control Language: They use escape codes to instruct the printer about the document that is to be printed. Humans cannot understand the escape codes, and they contain a command sequence and a series of numbers. Initially, this language was developed for dot matrix and inkjet printers. In 1984, it was used in the printers, and the quality of the content was drastically increased.
  • Fonts: They determine the look of a particular character. With the font change, there can be a change in the characters' size. Two kinds of font determine the style of the characters; they are resident font and soft font.
  • Resident Font: They are also called the internal fonts installed on the printer hardware. They are permanent fonts and cannot be deleted. A printer must have a resident font; there can be multiple resident fonts.
  • Soft Font: These fonts are installed by the user on the flash drives of the computer. The user can purchase soft font to enable the printer to print the content in the particular font.

Qualities of a Printer

  • There are many models and types of printers available in the market, but there are certain qualities that the user should check before finding a suitable printer. These qualities are as follows:
  • Resolution: The printer's resolution determines the sharpness of the image printed by it. The higher the picture resolution, the better the image will be. Usually, the resolution of a printer is specified in terms of dpi (dot per inch).
  • Speed: When purchasing a printer for an organization, the printer's speed becomes a crucial feature to consider. An average printer can produce 3-6 pages of print per minute. But the expensive printers can print a lot more.