Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit

50 Uses of Computer

What is Computer?

A computer is an electronic device developed to work with data. The name computer comes from the Latin phrase 'computare,' meaning to calculate or to have a programmed mechanism. A computer cannot function without a program. It uses a string of digits that are binary to represent decimal numbers. The term 'computer' typically refers to the Central Processor Unit as well as the internal memory.

A computer is an electronic device that accepts human input and processes it using a set of instruction (called a program) to produce a result (output) and preserve it for future use. It can do numerical as well as non-numerical (mathematics and logical) computations.

50 Uses of Computer

Uses of Computer

Computers are becoming increasingly important in practically every profession, making our daily work more doable. Previously, computers were solely employed to execute sophisticated numerical computations, but they have progressed too far and now serve a variety of functions. They currently conduct a wide range of duties ranging from complex computations to the compilation of company reports, bill creation to schooling, coding or development to recreation, and so on.

Computers are employed in a variety of industries due to their unique qualities and powerful functions, including households, companies, government offices, research centers, schools, medical, entertainment, and so on. Computers have elevated industries and enterprises to entirely new heights.

In this article, we have discussed the most typical applications of computers in several fields:

Schools-Colleges for Education

Obtaining the appropriate information, as well as information that makes sense, is a huge difficulty. College students use the internet for an average between 5-6 hours each week.According to research, computers may considerably improve learning performance. Students who have had access to the internet believe it has helped them enhance the standard of their schoolwork and written work. The introduction of distance learning is one educational revolution. This site provides a wide range of net and video-based training programs.

It is additionally identified by computer which students' fees weren't paid on time. In order to create the school's result, the title of the student is provided along with the points of different topics along with the class of department, in order that after computing the rating by computer, the total rating, class, percent of the rating, etc. are easily known.

  • Learning about Computers: Many computer subjects are studied nowadays, including computer science, information systems for computers, computer use, computer languages, the internet, e-mail, e-commerce, and e-business. It Is A Critical Computer Application.
  • Using a Computer to Teach: CAI (Computer Aided Instruction) is a type of computer software that gives a machine the look of a teacher. A secondary level student, for example, is a computer operating CAI. When learning algebra in (CAI), the software will ask the pupil to solve an algebra question on the computer screen. If the student answers correctly, the software presents the right response to that controversy on the screen, and the same new controversy will be asked.


Banking is the industry that first engaged in banks putting in computers, and banks are now completely reliant on computers. Previously, large scale ledgers were manually maintained, resulting in large salaries being spent on employee salaries. The only solution to this problem was computerization. Most banks use mainframe or minicomputers.

The central computer immediately transmits data on current balances, drafts, internet charges, shares, and so on to terminals across the whole bank. As a result, greater client service is provided in less time. Because to make use computers in the financial institution, here has been a reduction in the number of staff members, which has resulted in a reduction in salary expenses, as well as a reduction in the chances of accounting errors.

Medicine and Health

Computer technology is drastically altering medical instruments. All medical information is now digitizable. A disease's risk may now be computed using software. Computers are being used by mental health specialists to evaluate troublesome youngsters in need of treatment. A stroke sufferer has gotten an implant that permits a connection between his cerebral cortex and a laptop; as a consequence, he can move the cursor around a screen and transmit simple phrases by brainpower.


It has long been used by scientists. The concept of a "collaboratory," an internet-based collaborative laboratory, in which researchers from all over the world may easily collaborate even from a distance, is an exciting new venture among scientists. For example, in space physics, space physicists are permitted to collaborate to monitor the Earth's ionosphere from devices located in four different locations of the planet.


Most businesses utilize computers to teach their personnel. Computer-based training allows businesses to save time and money while increasing production. Additionally, computer-based training may be utilized to teach staff over long distances in several places. This reduces travel time and expenses, making the learning process more pleasant and efficient.


Computers have found their way into painting, photography, dancing, and culture. Advanced computers allow users to sketch their ideas right on the screen. People can also utilize computers to scan their images. There are various picture editing programs available to assist individuals edit and modify their images. Aside from that, the dance's moves and steps may be exhibited live with the assistance of animations.


Robotics is an emerging sector of technology that employs computers for research, engineering, and machine design. These devices can be virtual (as in software bots) or real, reducing or eliminating human effort. Furthermore, certain robots can execute heavy work that humans cannot or will not finish in a timely manner. vehicle manufacture became one manufacturing the first industries where robots assisted in the assembly of vehicle parts and other heavy duties. However, robots are increasingly useful in a variety of disciplines, including investigating locations where people would struggle, assisting the military, law enforcement, and health experts, among others.


When it involves publishing, computers were among the first options. Computers are mostly used to create newsletters, books, posters, magazines, and newspapers, among other things. They are appropriate for practically any sort of publishing. Computers may be found in both hard-copy and electronic publishing processes. Aside from that, computers are essential for blogging and producing articles for websites.

Forecasting the Weather

Forecasting the weather is never simple for humans since it is dependent on so many variables that change all the time. It is nearly difficult for humans to forecast the weather without the assistance of a computer. The weather forecasting method entails extensive calculation and data monitoring from satellites and a variety of other technical instruments. The computer has rendered it slightly simpler to anticipate weather conditions since it can collect information from many sources and do sophisticated calculations that are required for forecasting. During weather forecasting, computers process massive volumes of meteorological data.


Computers have evolved into one of the key means of communication. Modern computers include a built-in camera and microphone to facilitate communication. People may utilize applications such as Skype and Hangouts to communicate with others via the Internet. People may connect with both video and audio thanks to the videoconferencing capability. Computers assist families in connecting with relatives, businesses in organizing meetings, and companies in conducting interviews between two distant sites. Aside from that, conventional communication techniques like emails are still commonly employed.


Businesses obviously perceive the interest as a means of increasing productivity and competitiveness. Sales & marketing, shopping, banking, stock trading, and other areas of business are undergoing fast transformation. Sales personnel must not only be more educated and aware about their customers' companies, but they must also be comfortable using computer technology. The internet has grown in popularity as a marketing tool. Not only smart cards, but also internet banking, internet deposit, bill payment, online stock & bond trading, and so on, have entered the realm of cybercash.

Amusement and recreation

Computerization has also had an impact on our leisure and recreation. As an example:

  • Computer generated graphics in movies allow designers to experiment with special effects and even fictional characters while creating films, videos, and ads.
  • In sports, computers gather information, sell tickets, design training programs & diets of athletes, and provide game plan methods based on previous performance.
  • Almost everyone has dined at a restaurant where the clerk places an order by indicating options on an unusual-looking cash register; the gadget directly puts the real data into a computer, calculates the cost, and prints a receipt.


Computers are used by several government departments for planning, control, and law enforcement. Traffic, tourism, information and broadcasting, education, aviation, and many more are just a few examples.


  • Computers are used in a variety of ways in defence, including controlling unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), such as the Predator. I recommend viewing the series "Future Weapons" and "Modern Marvels" if you have cable. Future Weapon devotes a whole hour on the predator.
  • They are also employed on International Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs), which use GPS and computers to assist the missile in reaching its target.
  • Computers are employed to track incoming weapons and direct weaponry systems to destroy them.
  • Computers are utilized to assist the military in determining the location of all assets (contextual Aware) along with communications/battle management platforms.
  • Computers are employed in the logistical and ordering aspects of transporting equipment to and from the battlefield.
  • Computers are employed in tanks, aircraft, and warships to target enemy troops, run the platforms, and, more recently, diagnose platform faults.
  • Computers aid in the creation and testing of innovative systems.


Computers are employed in practically every activity in today's technologically advanced world.

Computer in Entertainment

From computer to movies, the video-film-industry creates many photography effects, audio effects, action effects, and so on. Fantasy Scenes are also brought to life by computer multimedia technology. In addition, music and painting software are installed on the computer.

Household Tasks

For personal tasks, several small-sized versions of computers are installed into household devices, such as:

  • Electronics computers and memories are employed in kitchen gadgets like microwave ovens and so on.
  • Computerized Car: Modern automobiles are entirely controlled by computers. Open the door by identifying the acquaintance's voice, sensing the state of oil, providing a road or city map, etc.
  • Home Banking and Shopping: EFT-Electronic Funds Transfer system is a bank facility that allows us to conduct business from banks, transportation agencies, and shops using a computer at home. The home computer is linked to the landline line, which is linked to the whole World Wide Web network.
  • Contemporary Cottage Industries - Nowadays, computers have made information a marketable and useful thing, which has resulted in the rise of home-based businesses. DTP (Desk Top Publishing) is an example of a home-based computer publishing business. We can create a centre that links the satellite to a dish antenna using a computer.
  • Computerized Houses: These days, houses are also computer controlled. Such is using a computer to recognize and welcome guests, or making water features in the grass. They also control the temperature in the house automatically while we are not around.
  • Personal Robot Servants - Robots Are To Be Considered Only For Dangerous Factory Tasks. It Could Also Be Used for Personal Purposes. A machine that moves is a 'human' that is controlled by a computer.

Reservation of Trains

Computer-controlled seat reservations benefit the consumer since they are carried out via the communication network through which every part of the nation is linked. All of this happens in a matter of seconds. When a seat is reserved, the information is automatically updated.

Booking Tickets Online Is A Simple And Trustworthy Method. Its main characteristics are as follows:

  • The Executive System's list of available key words may be checked.
  • Confirmation of Confirmation is given to members.
  • Provision enabling online booking and screen display. Verify Card Use By Member During Booking.
  • The Search Engine Considers URL Friendliness.
  • E-mail can be used to recover forgotten passwords.
  • Dynamic Cost Calculation.
  • The customer is not required to download any particular programs or files.
  • It has no effect on the third party. Apart from these, the fare, the suitability of booking, and other information are provided by railways in the on-line service.

Information Technology

The Internet connects computer networks from all around the world. You can get the required information from your home computer using this method. You can use search engine software to find your favourite subject on the internet. Yahoo and other search engines are examples. The Website is found by these Search Engines. Websites are Internet addresses for people or businesses. Almost all websites begin with the three letters 'WWW' in English, which stands for 'World Wide Web'.

Information Capture

While watching or working at a sporting event, official statisticians and certain scouts use laptops to record data, take notes, and talk online.

Movement Analysis

The top athletes are meticulous in their attention to detail. Computers can slow down recorded footage and allow users to analyze precise actions in order to enhance inclinations and correct bad ones.


Many sportswriters attend many athletic events each week and bring laptops to use to write during or immediately after the game, when their thoughts are still fresh in their minds.


While some scoreboards must be manually revised, most professional sports stadiums have relatively contemporary scoreboards that are designed to change statistics and information as soon as they are entered into the computer.


Computers have contributed in the creation of sports safety equipment such as football helmets, shoes, and mouth guards.

Computer Characteristics

  • Speed: As you are aware, computers are quite quick. Studies that we take weeks to accomplish take only a few seconds. You'll be shocked to learn that a computer can process millions (1,000,000) of commands per second, if not more. As a result, we measure computer speed in microseconds (10-6 component of a minute) or nanoseconds (ten to a maximum of -9 component of a second). This gives you an idea of how quickly your computer works.
  • Accuracy: The computer's accuracy is quite good, and each computation is conducted with identical accuracy. The precision level is 7, as decided by the computer's architecture. Computer mistakes are caused by human error and faulty data.
  • Diligence: A computing device is free of exhaustion, loss of attention, fatigue, and other such ailments. It may function for days without making any mistakes. A computer will complete each computation with the same precision if millions of computations need to be conducted. Because of this skill, it outperforms humans in regular tasks.
  • Versatility: Versatility refers to the ability to accomplish a wide range of tasks. Payroll slips can be generated using a computer. You may then use it to manage inventories or to calculate utility bills.
  • The ability to remember: A computer has the ability to store any quantity of data or information. Any information may be saved and retrieved for as long as you need it, for an unlimited number of years. It is totally up to you what amount of data you'd like to save on your machine and when you want to lose or recover it.
  • No IQ: A computer is a stupid machine that cannot perform anything without user input. It executes the instructions at breakneck speed and with pinpoint accuracy. It is up to you to pick what you'd like to accomplish and in what order. So, unlike you, a machine cannot make its own decisions.
  • No Emotion: It lacks sentiments, emotions, flavour, knowledge, and experience. As a result, even after numerous hours of labour, it does not become fatigued. It makes no distinction between users.
  • Storage: The machine has on-board memory that can hold a vast quantity of data. Data can also be stored on extra storage media such as floppies that can be retained outside of your computer and transported to other computers.

Advantages of Computer

  • Multitasking: One of the primary benefits of computers is the ability to multitask. A person may perform numerous jobs and procedures simultaneously, as well as solve numerical problems in a few of seconds. In one second, the computer may do thousands or billions of operations.
  • Speed: The computer is no longer only a calculating instrument. Nowadays, computers play an important part in human existence. One of the most significant advantages computers offer is their remarkable speed, which allows humans to complete tasks in a matter of seconds.
  • Cost: The cost/stores are enormous: the quantity of knowledge it is a low cost solution. A person may save a lot of data on a coffee budget. A central repository for collecting information is a significant cost-cutting benefit.
  • Accuracy: Among the primary benefits of computers is their ability to execute computations with precision.
  • Data security: It is defined as the protection of digital data.
  • Task completer: It can complete those types of tasks that people may be unable to complete.
  • Communication: The computer assists the user in comprehending and communicating with other devices.
  • Productivity: Because the computer can accomplish the task quickly, productivity is immediately doubled.
  • Reliability: Computers can execute the same type of task repeatedly without making errors due to exhaustion or boredom, both of which are prevalent in people.
  • Storage: The computer has an internal memory that can hold a large quantity of data. Auxiliary storage devices can also be used to store data.

Disadvantages of Computer

  • Virus and hacker attacks: A virus is a worm, while hacking is just unauthorised access to a computer for nefarious intentions. Viruses can enter another system via email attachments, seeing an infected website advertising, portable media such as USBs, and so on.
  • Online Cyber Crimes: An online cyber-crime occurs when computers and networks are used to conduct a crime. Online stalking & fraud are two examples of online cybercrime.
  • Reduction in employment opportunities: Because previous generations did not utilize computers or did not require computer expertise, they faced a huge difficulty when computers entered the market.
  • Computers are quite pricey. Even the most basic laptops are still too pricey for the average South African. People are empowered by computers.
  • Distractions/disruptions: If you've ever spent hours surfing the web or watching YouTube videos, you know how tempting computers can be because of their great level of entertainment.
  • Increases waste and has an environmental impact: Because computers and other electronics are replaced so quickly, all of the old gadgets that are discarded have a significant environmental impact.
  • Health Issues: Prolonged computer usage can pose a number of health risks. Sitting too close to the screen causes eye strain and eye dryness. In addition, extended sitting causes neck and back difficulties.


To summarize, computers have drastically altered how society works & performs specific activities. There are many instances of this in business, schooling, and hospitals. Simple, every-day tasks would be difficult to do without the assistance of computers. Computers can instil inspiration, creation, and life in everyone and open up new possibilities for a brighter future.