Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)? Object Linking and Embedding in MS Word Semiconductor Memory Types of Parallel Computing Web Resources Difference between Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse Difference between HQ (High Quality) and HD (High Definition) What is Text Wrapping What is Timestamp? Semiconductor Ram Memory What is a File Attribute? What is a Video Call? Difference between SDRAM and DDR What is ANSI? Difference between DOS and Windows How to Set the Path and Environment Variables in Windows? Mainframe System What is ScanDisk? C drive in Mac Computer Memory Table How to Change the Keyboard Language in Windows? What is a Video Call? What is a Zoom Slider? What is Floppy Disk in Computer What is the most Popular Operating System? OMR in Computer What is a Work Area?

Abstraction in OOAD

Abstraction in Object-Oriented Analysis Design (OOAD)

AOOAD stands for object-oriented analysis and design. In software engineering design, a fundamental idea abstraction is crucial to object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD). With the help of this effective technology, software engineers may streamline complicated systems and make them more logical, adaptive, and manageable.

The idea of abstraction is not new; for ages, it has been the foundation of human reasoning and problem-solving. When we abstract, we take out the essential qualities or traits of a thing, idea, or system, leaving out the specifics. The process of determining and setting priorities is crucial in OOAD, just as it is in many other disciplines, including science, the arts, and mathematics.

For OOAD, abstraction involves creating abstract representations of real-world objects, which are then translated into software objects. This approach helps to model and optimize complex systems.

To explore the importance and mechanics of abstraction in more detail, we will examine the following sections.

Forms of Abstraction

In OOAD, abstraction works on several levels. At the highest level, you have conceptual or domain-level abstraction. Understanding the problem domain, recognizing important ideas, and realistically modelling them are all part of this process. Here, the focus is on grasping the essential elements of the issue without being mired in the details.

Moving down the hierarchy, you have structural and behavioural abstractions, which focus on defining the organization and interactions of software components. These abstractions also contribute to the design and operation of the system.

Finally, at the lowest level, you have abstraction at the implementation level. It involves the design and coding of software components and has a low level of detail, enhancing modularity and maintainability.

Abstraction and Encapsulation

In OOAD, abstraction and encapsulation frequently go hand in hand. The act of combining data and the operations performed on it into a single unit or object is referred to as encapsulation. Then, by abstracting this unit, its internal workings can be hidden, leaving only a clearly defined interface exposed to the outside world.

Encapsulation is an important way to manage complexity. This allows you to create objects with well-defined responsibilities, making it easier to understand and modify the software. Furthermore, it provides partial protection by preventing unauthorized access to the product content and promotes a clean separation of the elements of concern.

Class and Object

In OOAD, abstraction is most evident in the creation of classes and objects. A class is an abstract representation of an object, describing its attributes (data) and actions (methods). It extracts essential characteristics shared by all objects of a particular genre.

When you instantiate a class, you create an object, which is a concrete instance of that class. Subjects are examples of abstraction. They take an abstract structure defined by a class and assign specific data values, thus representing real-world objects or concepts.

Polymorphism and Abstraction

Polymorphism is another key concept closely related to abstraction in OOAD. It allows objects of different classes to be treated as objects of a common base class, making their specific types completely obscure. This adds flexibility and extensibility to your software program.

Abstraction and Modelling

One of the main purposes of abstraction in OOAD is to create an accurate model of complex systems. These diagrams act as a bridge between the real world and the software world, allowing developers to evaluate systems and plan systems more efficiently.

Models can take various forms, such as UML diagrams, flowcharts, or textual descriptions. The complexities of the system are stripped away, focusing on its important aspects. Models aid in needs assessment, program design, and stakeholder communication by providing clear and concise descriptions of program design and actions.

Abstraction and Modularity

Abstraction and modularity are interrelated concepts in OOAD. Modularity requires that systems be broken down into smaller self-contained units that can be developed, deployed, and tested independently. Abstraction contributes to modularity by allowing you to contain the contents of a module and expose only the necessary interface.

Modularity simplifies the development process by making it more manageable, as developers can work on individual modules without having to understand the entire system at once. It also encourages code reusability; by design, abstract modules can be reused in different contexts.

Abstraction and Software Development

Not only is abstraction important in the basic design phase, but It also plays an important role throughout the software life cycle. When changes or updates are needed, abstraction allows developers to modify or extend software with minimal hassle. By making important parts of the system opaque, changes can easily be made without affecting other parts of the system.

Challenges and trade-offs

While abstraction is a powerful tool, it lacks complexity and trade-offs. Focusing too much on a system can create unnecessary complexity, making it easier to understand. It's important to strike a balance between abstraction and concreteness.

  • Abstraction and Reusability: Furthermore, abstraction makes software design simpler and enhances its reuse. This means that one can develop abstract representations of objects and interactions, which will lead to the building of software components that can be interchanged during programming.
  • Abstraction and Testing: It is also worth noting that abstraction is very important in software testing. You can isolate individual components during testing, which helps to find and eliminate the bugs since you do not get distracted by other components' workings. That is why software should reach maximum reliability.
  • Abstraction and Scalability: Abstraction supports the building of scalable software systems. Increasingly complex systems require abstract models that keep the structures and additions of new components or features distinct while retaining the integrity of the existing ones. It enables sustainability and scalability for software in the long run.
  • Abstraction and Collaboration: Abstraction in the sense of modelling is vital for cooperation in a software development project. Abstract models like UML diagrams are languages commonly used by developers, designers, and stakeholders to communicate how the system works and its structure.
  • Abstraction and Design Patterns: The notion of abstraction has a close link with the idea of design patterns. Reusable solutions for commonly recurring software design dilemmas are called design patterns. Abstraction is also used when creating general and flexible solutions that are applicable in different situations.
  • Abstraction and Agile Development: This is closely aligned with agile software development practices. The ability to adapt itself to the changing necessities of the user is made possible through agile methodologies.
  • Abstraction in Software Architecture: Software architects also abstract at the class, object levels, and the high-level structure of systems. These abstractions determine the system's components and are referred to as architectural abstractions.


  • Complexity vs. Understandability: Striking the right balance between abstraction and concreteness is a common challenge. Overly abstract models can become too complex and challenging to comprehend, defeating the purpose of simplifying the system. Developers must ensure that abstractions remain understandable to the project team.
  • Performance vs. Abstraction: In some cases, highly abstracted designs might introduce performance overhead. This is because abstraction may lead to additional layers of indirection or unnecessary computations. Balancing abstraction with performance is crucial, and performance-critical parts of the software may need to be less abstract.
  • Maintenance: While abstraction eases the process of making changes or updates, it can also introduce challenges in maintaining the software. When an abstracted component is modified, it's essential to ensure that these changes don't inadvertently affect other parts of the system. Proper testing and version control are crucial in managing software maintenance.
  • Abstraction Hierarchies: This complexity is due to the management of the hierarchy of abstractions. There is a simple way to implement a program with a defined structure, although this may prove problematic when such a system becomes huge and quite intricate. The management of the hierarchy requires careful planning and periodic refactoring to remain effective.
  • Abstraction and User Interface Design: Abstraction in user interface design may sometimes lead to the gap between the mental user's model of the system and its behaviour. Finding the right balance in the abstraction of complex processes for efficiency and usability.


In conclusion, abstraction is a fundamental principle in object analysis and design. It empowers developers to prototype, design, and executes complex software systems by focusing on critical features while including implementation details. Through abstraction, we create a hierarchy of layers, from domain to function, and use concepts such as encapsulation and polymorphism to increase software flexibility and maintainability. An abstraction is an important tool for modelling; it is accurate, enhances modularity, and supports software development. It's a double-edged sword, as too much abstraction can lead to complexity and performance issues. So, it's important to find the right balance. Abstraction is a testament to the power of human imagination and problem-solving, allowing us to simplify the complexity of modern software systems and create elegant and efficient solutions.