Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)?

BPS in Computer

BPS stands for Bits Per Second. In the today's hyper-connected digital landscape, the underpinning technical aspects of data transfer and communication are often overlooked, but they are vital. One such technical parameter that is of paramount importance in the world of computing and telecommunications is BPS, or Bits Per Second. BPS is not merely an obscure acronym but rather a fundamental metric that plays a significant role in determining data transmission and processing efficiency and effectiveness.

The world's increasing reliance on information and communication technologies, from internet browsing and online gaming to video conferencing and file downloads, makes BPS more relevant than ever. Whether waiting for a web page to load, streaming your favourite series, or sending a crucial file across the globe, the Rate at which data is transferredthe BPSis the hidden force that shapes your digital experience.

What is BPS?

In computers, BPS, an acronym for Bits Per Second, is a fundamental metric carrying significant weight. It's a term you have encountered, but you must fully grasp its essence. In computer terminology, BPS refers to the Rate at which data is transmitted or processed, telling us how quickly bits of data can travel in computer systems and networks.

To simplify, BPS measures the speed of data transfer. It helps us understand the pace at which information flows, whether crossing the internet, zipping through a cable, or racing within a computer's internal components. The BPS rating represents the number of bits, those tiny data units can be transmitted or processed within a single second.

Now, the significance of BPS cannot be understated. It is a pivotal metric in determining communication and data exchange efficiency and effectiveness. In today's digital world, it's the backbone of all things tech, be it sending an email, streaming a movie, participating in online gaming, or downloading a hefty file.

The historical journey of BPS is equally intriguing. In the early days of computing and data transmission, BPS rates were modest. We're talking about single or double-digit BPS figures that are almost quaint compared to the high-speed data exchanges we experience today. But as technology advanced, BPS rates grew exponentially to keep up with our ever-increasing appetite for rapid data transfer. This evolution speaks to our relentless drive for progress and highlights our ability to harness the power of data at ever-accelerating rates. Understanding this historical backdrop of BPS is crucial to appreciate how far we've come and imagine where we might be headed.

The Importance of BPS

Within the expansive domains of computing and telecommunications, BPS, or Bits Per Second, is pivotal, carrying immense significance in shaping the digital landscape. Its importance is deeply rooted in its ability to define the speed at which data travels, a concept that underpins the efficiency of data transfer and communication in modern technology.

At its core, BPS acts as a compass, guiding the design, implementation, and optimization of various systems that rely on swift data exchange. It is the metric that measures the velocity at which data bits are transmitted or processed. In essence, BPS serves as a vital yardstick for evaluating the effectiveness of any data communication process, ranging from sending an email to conducting a video conference.

The crux of the matter is that the Rate at which data flows fundamentally impacts the quality of our digital interactions. Consider, for instance, the streaming of a high-definition movie. The higher the BPS, the more smoothly and quickly the data is transferred to your device, resulting in a seamless viewing experience. In contrast, a sluggish BPS rate might lead to buffering, delays, and a frustrating viewing experience. In online gaming, low BPS can translate into lag, spoiling the competitive edge and enjoyment.

Moreover, BPS is indispensable in modern telecommunication networks, including mobile data, broadband, and satellite connections. The efficiency and reliability of these networks directly hinge on BPS rates. A faster BPS rate means quicker downloads, clearer voice calls, and smoother video chats, enhancing our overall connectivity.

Real-world applications further emphasize the critical importance of BPS. From medical telesurgery and autonomous vehicles to financial transactions and disaster response coordination, BPS is the invisible hand that guides the swiftness and accuracy of data exchange, often in situations where milliseconds matter.

In essence, BPS is more than just a technical metric; it's the cornerstone of modern communication and technology, ensuring that our digital world operates seamlessly and efficiently. Its role in determining the pace of data transfer and communication is central to how we experience and benefit from the technology surrounding us.

BPS vs Baud Rate

BPS (Bits Per Second) and Baud Rate are two terms often used interchangeably, but they represent distinct concepts in data transmission. Understanding the difference between them is vital for anyone working with communication technology.

Comparison IndexBPS (Bits Per Second)Baud Rate
DefinitionMeasures the number of bits transmitted per second.Measures the number of signal changes per second.
UnitExpressed in bits per second (bps).Expressed in baud (Bd).
FocusFocuses on data transmission and reception.Focuses on signal changes, which can represent data or other information.
RelationshipOne BPS can represent multiple signal changes (e.g., using modulation techniques).Baud Rate and BPS are equal in simpler communication systems where one signal change corresponds to one bit.
Example 1In a simple binary system, 1200 BPS means 1200 bits are transmitted per second.In a simple binary system, a Baud Rate of 1200 also means 1200 bits are transmitted per second.
Example 2In a more complex system using modulation, 2400 BPS may correspond to a Baud Rate of 1200.In a more complex system, 2400 BPS may still correspond to a Baud Rate of 2400 if multiple signal changes are used to represent each bit.

In practical terms, confusion often arises because BPS and Baud Rate are equal in simpler communication systems where each signal change directly represents one bit. However, the two can diverge in more complex systems using modulation techniques. For instance, a BPS of 2400 might correspond to a Baud Rate 1200 if each signal change represents two bits.

How BPS affects Data Transfer

The BPS rate, or Bits Per Second, is a critical factor in determining the speed and efficiency of data transmission in the digital world. It directly influences the pace at which data travels and profoundly impacts our online experiences, whether downloading a file, streaming a video, or engaging in real-time communication.

First and foremost, the BPS rate is synonymous with speed in data transmission. Higher BPS means faster data transfer, while lower BPS equates to slower data movement. When downloading or uploading files, streaming media, or engaging in online activities, the BPS rate is a primary factor influencing the time it takes for data to arrive at its destination. A high BPS rate ensures swift and smooth experiences, whereas a low rate may result in sluggish performance, buffering, or even disconnections.

The relationship between BPS and file size is straightforward but crucial to grasp. Imagine you have a file size of 10 megabytes (MB) you want to download. If you have a BPS rate of 1 megabit per second (Mbps), it will take roughly 8 seconds to complete the download (10 MB = 80 megabits). In contrast, with a faster BPS rate of 10 Mbps, the same file would download in just 0.8 seconds.

For practical tips on optimizing data transfer rates, consider the following:

  • Choose a Faster Internet Connection:If you have control over your internet service, consider upgrading to a plan with higher BPS rates. Faster connections naturally lead to quicker data transfer.
  • Minimize Network Congestion:Avoid downloading or streaming during peak hours when network congestion is high. Opt for less congested times to enjoy faster data transfer.
  • Optimize Wi-Fi Performance:Ensure your Wi-Fi router is positioned optimally and equipped with the latest technology to maximize your wireless BPS rates.
  • Use Wired Connections:Use a wired Ethernet connection instead of Wi-Fi for critical downloads or activities, as it typically offers more consistent and higher BPS rates.
  • Streamline Data:Compress or zip large files before sending or downloading them to reduce the amount of data being transferred.
  • Close Background Applications:Applications or processes running in the background can consume bandwidth and affect your BPS rate. Close unnecessary programs to free up bandwidth for your active tasks. Ud Rate are two terms often used interchangeably, but they represent distinct concepts in data transmission. Understanding the difference between them is vital for anyone working with communication technology.

BPS in Different Technologies

BPS (Bits Per Second) is a critical metric in various technology domains, shaping how we connect, communicate, and exchange data in our modern world. Its relevance extends to various technologies, each with unique characteristics that affect the BPS rate and user experience.

1. Internet Connections: Broadband, DSL, and Dial-Up

In internet connections, BPS plays a fundamental role in determining the speed and efficiency of data transfer. Broadband connections, such as cable or fiber-optic, typically offer higher BPS rates, often reaching hundreds of megabits per second (Mbps) or gigabits per second (Gbps). It results in lightning-fast web browsing, smooth streaming, and quick downloads. On the other hand, DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) offers a wide range of BPS rates, with newer variants like VDSL2 providing faster speeds than traditional ADSL connections. Dial-up connections, which have become increasingly rare, offer much lower BPS rates, usually limited to 56 Kbps, resulting in slower data transfer and unsuitable for bandwidth-intensive tasks.

2. Wireless Communication: Wi-Fi and Cellular Networks

Wireless technologies like Wi-Fi and cellular networks rely heavily on BPS rates to determine the speed of data exchange. Wi-Fi connections offer varying BPS rates based on the Wi-Fi standard (e.g., 802.11n, 802.11ac, 802.11ax). The latest standards provide significantly faster BPS rates than older ones, allowing smoother streaming and quicker downloads. Cellular networks, including 4G and 5G, offer varying BPS rates depending on network availability and congestion. Faster BPS rates enable seamless mobile browsing, video conferencing, and app downloads.

3. Serial Communication: RS-232 and USB

In serial communication, BPS rates are vital in data exchange between devices. RS-232, a traditional serial communication standard, offers BPS rates ranging from 300 to 115,200 bps. Users select the appropriate BPS rate to match the capabilities of the connected devices, affecting the speed of data transfer. On the other hand, USB (Universal Serial Bus) provides a range of BPS rates, from the original USB 1.0 with 1.5 Mbps to the high-speed USB 3.2 with 20 Gbps. Faster BPS USB rates allow quicker data transfer when connecting peripherals such as external hard drives, printers, or cameras.

The implications for users are evident: faster BPS rates translate to quicker and more efficient data transfer, leading to improved digital experiences. However, the choice of technology and BPS rate depends on individual needs, available infrastructure, and intended use. In summary, BPS rates are pivotal in shaping the performance of various technologies, enabling users to adapt their connections and devices according to their specific requirements.

Factors Affecting BPS

Several factors influence BPS (Bits Per Second), and understanding them is crucial for optimizing data transfer rates. These factors can impact the efficiency and speed of data transmission, and users can take steps to mitigate their effects.

1. Network Congestion

Network congestion occurs when there is excessive demand for data transfer within a network, causing data packets to queue up, slow down, or even get dropped. It can result from multiple users sharing the same network, high data traffic, or limited bandwidth. During periods of high congestion, BPS rates can decrease, leading to slower data transfers and potential interruptions in service.


  • Choose non-peak hours: Performing data-intensive tasks during off-peak hours can help avoid congestion.
  • Upgrade your plan:Opt for a higher-tier internet plan with more bandwidth to accommodate increased data demands.

2. Line Quality and Signal Noise

Line quality and signal noise are prevalent in wired and wireless connections. Line quality can be affected by factors like distance from the source, the condition of cables, and interference from other electronic devices. Signal noise refers to unwanted interference that can disrupt the clarity of data signals.


  • Use high-quality cables:Ensuring your cables are in good condition and meet industry standards can improve line quality.
  • Invest in signal boosters:For wireless connections, signal boosters can mitigate noise and improve signal strength.

3. Hardware Limitations

The capabilities of your devices and hardware can significantly impact BPS. Older hardware may not support the latest technologies or faster BPS rates, limiting data transfer speeds.


  • Upgrade hardware:Consider upgrading to newer devices, routers, or modems that support higher BPS rates.
  • Update firmware:Keeping your devices' firmware up-to-date can optimize their performance and compatibility with faster data rates.

4. Protocols and Data Compression

The choice of data transfer protocols and compression techniques can affect BPS rates. Some protocols are more efficient than others, and data compression can reduce the amount of data transmitted.


  • Choose efficient protocols:Ensure you use protocols suitable for your specific needs, such as FTP for file transfer.
  • Use effective data compression:Utilize compression software to reduce data sizes before transmission, improving data transfer speeds.

5. Distance from the Source

The distance between your device and the data source for wired connections can influence BPS. Longer distances may result in signal degradation and lower BPS rates.


  • Relocate closer to the source: Minimizing the physical distance between your device and the data source can improve BPS rates.


In closing, our journey through the intricacies of BPS (Bits Per Second) has shed light on its indispensable role in our digital landscape. Beyond a mere technical term, BPS is a cornerstone of data transmission, influencing the speed and efficacy of our digital interactions.

As we navigate the ever-evolving digital age, understanding BPS becomes a key to optimizing our technological experiences. Whether you're streaming media, sending important emails, or downloading files, BPS defines the fluidity and efficiency of these processes.

For all of us, embracing the significance of BPS translates into more informed choices and more satisfying digital interactions. By taking the time to appreciate the power of BPS, we can better equip ourselves to harness the potential of modern technology, ensuring that our digital experiences are both efficient and enjoyable. So, as you step into your next digital endeavour, remember the unseen force of BPS working behind the scenes, enhancing your journey in the digital age.