Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)?

Bulletin Board System

BBS is an acronym that stands for Bulletin Board System. BBS was an integral part of the early computer-based communication landscape. These systems emerged during the formative years of digital technology, providing users with a unique platform to connect to a central computer via modems. Within this digital realm, people could exchange messages, share files, and engage in text-based conversations.

History of BBS

BBSs were often operated by individuals or small organizations and saw their peak popularity during the 1980s and 1990s. Users would dial in using their modems, connecting to the BBS host computer, and gaining access to a world of possibilities. Within these environments, individuals had the opportunity not just to engage in conversations but also to partake in text-based gaming, exchange information, and delve into a diverse spectrum of subjects.

These BBSs laid the groundwork for the online forums and social networks we encounter today, playing a crucial role in shaping the nascent stages of the internet. They helped establish the sense of a connected digital community and laid the foundation for the interconnected global web we now know.

Bulletin Board System

The Origins of BBS

The late 1970s marked the dawn of the Bulletin Board System (BBS) era, an essential chapter in the history of digital communication. Ward Christensen and Randy Suess, two innovative computer enthusiasts, deserve special mention for pioneering this technology.

In 1978, Christensen and Suess crafted the first BBS software, "CBBS" (Computerized Bulletin Board System). Initially designed to facilitate file sharing between the two, this humble creation eventually paved the way for a communication revolution.

Early BBSs primarily served as digital hubs where like-minded individuals could connect, albeit at sluggish modem speeds, and share text-based messages, files, and information. They were akin to community bulletin boards, but on a global scale, connecting users who would otherwise never have met. These early BBSs paved the way for the online forums and social networks that are now commonplace.

These early systems were primarily designed to facilitate communication, foster a sense of community, and share information among their user base, which consisted mainly of tech enthusiasts eager to explore the uncharted digital landscape. While their capabilities were modest in comparison to today's platforms, these pioneering BBSs played a foundational role in shaping the digital communities and social interactions that now define the Internet era.

Working of BBS 

Understanding how a Bulletin Board System (BBS) functions is very similar to peering into the digital past when the internet was a vastly different landscape.

At its core, a BBS is a computer server running specialized software that allows users to dial in and interact with the system through their personal computers. To connect to a BBS, a user needed a modem that converted digital data from their computer into audio signals for transmission over a standard telephone line.

Upon dialling the BBS number, the modem emitted a series of distinctive squeals and beeps, establishing a connection. This iconic handshake process was the user's gateway to the BBS universe. Once connected, users navigated the BBS's menus using text-based commands.

BBS software ranged from simple single-line systems to more complex multi-node setups. Many were created by passionate individuals and tailored to specific interests or communities. These programs managed user accounts, message boards, and file libraries and often featured online games or interactive chat rooms. Users could upload and download files, engage in discussions, and send private messages.

On the hardware side, BBS operators required a computer to run the BBS software, a modem bank if they wanted multiple users to connect simultaneously, and adequate storage for files and messages. A BBS often operated 24/7, so stability and backup power sources were crucial. Though modest by today's standards, these charmingly rudimentary systems laid the foundation for the online interactions and communities we enjoy today.

Features and Functionalities of BBS

Bulletin Board Systems (BBS) were digital hubs that offered a range of unique features and functionalities, contributing to their enduring appeal among early computer enthusiasts.

  • Message Boards and Forums: BBS systems were known for their message boards, which served as the heart of their communities. Users could engage in text-based discussions, share information, and connect with like-minded individuals. These boards covered various topics, from technology, gaming, hobbies, and general chit-chat.
  • File Downloads: BBSs were virtual treasure troves of downloadable content. Users can access software, games, documents, and more. Before the World Wide Web and widespread broadband, BBS file libraries were the primary source of digital content distribution.
  • Online Games: Some BBSs hosted multiplayer online games, often text-based. These games included MUDs (Multi-User Dungeons), trivia games, and role-playing adventures, offering a precursor to modern online gaming communities.
  • Unique Culture and Etiquette: BBS communities had distinct cultures and etiquette. Users typically adopted pseudonyms, or "handles," to protect their privacy, and etiquette involved respecting others' opinions and following forum rules. Flame wars, while not uncommon, were usually discouraged in favour of constructive discussions.
  • ANSI Art and Graphics: ANSI art was a distinctive and colourful form of graphical expression on BBS. It consisted of text-based images created using ANSI escape codes. ANSI art was a medium for creative expression and served as a way to enhance the aesthetics of a BBS interface. Users often appreciated intricate ANSI art banners and logos.

ANSI art is one of the unique artistic elements associated with BBS culture. These intricate, text-based images added character to BBS interfaces and personalized the user experience. Skilled ANSI artists were highly regarded within the community, and their creations became a hallmark of individual BBS identities.

The Rise and Fall of BBS

  • The 1980s and 1990s were the heyday of Bulletin Board Systems (BBS), when these digital enclaves thrived and flourished, laying the groundwork for future online interactions.
  • During this era, BBS communities were at their zenith. BBSs became hubs for early adopters of personal computers and modems, offering a unique space for people to connect, share, and learn. It was the age of dial-up connections, text-based interfaces, and the unmistakable modem handshake.
  • Notable BBSs such as FidoNet, Wildcat!, and Renegade BBS garnered loyal followings. FidoNet, in particular, was a global network of BBS systems, pioneering the concept of electronic mail and message exchange across different BBS nodes.
  • However, as the World Wide Web emerged in the late 1990s, the popularity of BBS systems waned. The web provided a more visually appealing and user-friendly platform accessible through web browsers. BBSs struggled to compete with the convenience and versatility of the web, and many gradually faded into obscurity.
  • While the heyday of BBS has come and gone, its legacy endures in the principles it established, the communities it fostered, and the technologies it influenced. These early digital communities were pioneers, setting the stage for the expansive and interconnected online world we now take for granted.

BBS in the Modern Era

While the Bulletin Board System (BBS) may have experienced a decline with the advent of the World Wide Web, it has seen a niche resurgence in recent years, attracting a dedicated and nostalgic community of users.

  • Resurgence in Niche Communities: BBS has found a second wind, albeit on a smaller scale, thanks to enthusiasts who cherish these systems' simplicity and retro charm. Some contemporary BBS communities have revived the experience, allowing users to dial in via Telnet or SSH, just as in the early days of the internet.
  • Nostalgia and Retro Appeal: The resurgence is driven by nostalgia as users from the BBS era revisit their digital roots. For those who experienced the early days of online communication, using a BBS can be a trip down memory lane. The text-based interfaces, ASCII art, and bulletin board conversations offer a sense of retro appeal.
  • Privacy and Control: Another reason for the revival is the desire for a more private and controlled online environment. In an age of data breaches and privacy concerns, BBSs offer seclusion and community ownership. Users appreciate the self-regulating, smaller-scale interactions and content.
  • Contemporary BBS Communities: Some notable modern BBS communities have sprung up, catering to various interests. Some focus on classic retro computing discussions and file sharing, while others provide a platform for indie game developers to showcase their work. These contemporary BBSs are often run by dedicated hobbyists who keep the spirit of the original BBS culture alive.

The Legacy of BBS

The legacy of Bulletin Board Systems (BBS) is deeply ingrained in the very fabric of Internet culture. While these early systems may seem like relics from a bygone era, their impact on the digital landscape endures.

BBS systems laid the foundation for many internet technologies and practices we now take for granted. They pioneered online communities, real-time messaging, and digital file sharing. The culture of pseudonyms or "handles" used on BBS systems is a precursor to today's online usernames.

Furthermore, the concept of user-generated content and community-driven discussions that thrived on BBS message boards is a direct precursor to modern online forums and social networks. BBS systems sowed the seeds of our interconnected world, fostering a sense of digital camaraderie that persists today.

The enduring legacy of BBS is a testament to the innovative spirit of early internet pioneers and their role in shaping the digital landscape we inhabit today.

Challenges and Limitations of BBS

Despite its pioneering role, Bulletin Board Systems (BBS) had limitations. One significant constraint was their limited user capacity, which often meant only a few users could access a BBS simultaneously. The slow dial-up modem speeds of the time were another hindrance, leading to sluggish data transfers and sometimes frustratingly slow interactions. Additionally, BBS operators had to contend with the cost of phone lines, making it challenging to run larger BBS systems. These limitations were inherent to the technology of the era. Although their presence waned as the World Wide Web emerged, these systems serve as a tribute to the modest beginnings of online communication.