Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)?

CMOS Memory


A non-volatile memory technique known as CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor) memory uses an amalgam of metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors to store data. Because of its low electricity use, high density, and capacity to keep data even when power is lost, it is extensively employed in various electronic devices, including computers, cell phones, cameras, and other embedded systems. In this discussion, we'll further detail the advantages, functions, and workings of CMOS memory. The creation of integrated circuits (ICs) uses CMOS technology. MOSFETs (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors) are used in complementary pairs to build digital logic gates and other electrical components. With its low use of power, substantial integration density, and superior noise immunity, CMOS technology is frequently employed.

Working principle of CMOS

CMOS memory uses n-type and p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors with field-effects (MOSFETs) to store and retrieve data. Flip-flops or static random-access memory (SRAM) cells are the essential components of CMOS memory.

  • SRAM Cells: SRAM cells comprise several MOSFETs arranged in a cross-coupled configuration. Due to their bistability, these cells can maintain either their current state (0 or 1) regardless of the absence of power. SRAM is frequently utilised as a memory for caches in CPUs because it offers quick access times.
  • Flip-Flops: Flip-flops are SRAM-based sequential logic devices. They can be joined to form more extensive or shift registers and only hold one bit of data. Both volatile and non-volatile storage applications employ flip-flops.

A three-terminal device with a gate, source, and drain, the MOSFET is the fundamental component of CMOS technology. By supplying the voltage to the gate, the gate terminal regulates the current flow rate across the supply and drain terminals.

N-type (NMOS) and p-type (PMOS) MOSFETs are the two MOSFETs utilised in CMOS technology. When a positive voltage is provided to the gate of an NMOS transistor, current can flow through the source and the drain. On the flip side of the hand, PMOS transistors operate when a negative voltage is provided to the gate.

The complementary characteristics of transistors made from NMOS and PMOS are the fundamental idea behind CMOS technology. They are utilised in pairs to create logic gates along with additional components. The opposite is true: while a particular transistor is on (conducting), another type is off (non-conducting). This complimentary behaviour considerably lowers power usage because there is no direct conduit for current to flow from the power source to the ground other than during switching transitions.

Basic CMOS gates for logic:

  • A PMOS transistor and an NMOS transistor are coupled in series to form a CMOS inverter. The output is driven to a low state (logic 0) where the input signal is high (logic 1), the PMOS is off, and the NMOS is on. On the other hand, when the input signal is low (logic 0), the PMOS is turned on, and the NMOS is turned off, sending the result to a high state (logic 1).
  • Several series-connected transistors made of PMOS and parallel-connected NMOS transistors make up the CMOS NAND gate. It creates a low result when the two inputs are high (logic 1) while the PMOS transistor is off (logic 0).
  • Several parallel-connected PMOS transistors and series-connected NMOS transistors make up the CMOS NOR gate. When the two inputs were low (logic 0) while the NMOS transistors were off, does it create a high result (logic 1)?
  • A NAND gate is used to build the CMOS AND gate, which a converter will follow. Only when both inputs are high (logic 1) does it create a high outcome (logic 1)?
  • CMOS OR Gate: An inverter is used after a NOR gate to build the CMOS OR gate. When a minimum of one input has a high value (logic 1), it generates a high output (logic 1).

Advantages and Disadvantages of CMOS


  • Low electricity Consumption: Among the essential benefits of CMOS memory is its use of very little electricity. CMOS technology uses very little static energy and only uses electricity while reading or writing data to or from memory. It makes it perfect for portable gadgets and battery-powered devices.
  • Non-Volatile: Some CMOS memory types, like flash memory, are non-volatile, which means they can preserve data even after the power is turned off. Because of this property, CMOS memory may store vital system data, firmware, and files in gadgets such as USB drives and SSDs.
  • High Integration Density: Because CMOS technology enables high integration density, memory chips with huge capacity may be produced while maintaining a compact physical dimension. Because of this, CMOS memory is a good fit for contemporary, small-footprint electronic gadgets.
  • Fast Accessing Times: SRAM-based CMOS memory offers short access times, making it appropriate for cache memory in powerful CPUs and other uses where speedy read/write operations are essential. The performance of the system as a whole benefits from faster access times.
  • Ease in Integration: CMOS memory is easily merged with other CMOS parts like processors, logic gates, and various peripherals into integrated circuits (ICs). Design complexity is reduced, and this integration decreases production complexity.
  • Flash memory, a form of CMOS memory, has an exceptionally high endurance level, translating to the capacity to withstand extensive read/write cycles. Solid-state drives (SSDs) and other applications that demand frequent data updates might benefit from flash memory's reliability.
  • Ease of Integration: CMOS memory is easily merged with other CMOS parts like machines, logic gates, and additional peripherals into integrated circuits (ICs). Design complexity is reduced, and this integration decreases production complexity.
  • Flash memory, a form of CMOS memory, has an elevated endurance level, translating to the capacity to withstand many read and write cycles. Solid-state drives (SSDs) and other applications that demand frequent data updates might benefit from flash memory's reliability.


  • Limited Read/Write Cycles: Flash memory has more endurance than other forms of memory, but it is limited to how many read/write cycles it can withstand before failing. The memory cells may deteriorate over time; read/write operations are frequent and vigorous.
  • Higher Price: CMOS memory can be more expensive to produce than other types of memory technologies, particularly when compared to conventional, non-volatile storage devices like hard disc drives (HDDs).
  • Limited Data Retention: Certain CMOS memory types, such as Dynamic Random-Access Memory (DRAM), are unstable and need constant power to store data. Data stored in these storage types is also lost if power is lost.
  • Complex Design and Manufacturing: CMOS memory design and production may be complicated and need sophisticated fabrication techniques. Costs of production may increase as a result of this complexity.
  • Radiation Susceptibility: CMOS memory is prone to radio-induced errors, a problem for applications that expose the memory to radiation-rich settings, like space or aviation missions.
  • Security Issues: The non-volatile characteristics of CMOS memory (e.g., Flash memory) might be a drawback in some applications, including astute card readers or security-sensitive devices, since it may make it more difficult to delete or rewrite data safely.

Applications of CMOS Memory

  • Cache Memory in CPUs: Central processing units (CPUs) frequently employ CMOS SRAM (Static Random-Access Memory) as cache memory. Speeding, CPU access to crucial data, cache storage is a memory with high speeds that stores frequently visited data.
  • Flash memory, a form of non-volatile CMOS recall, is a common component of solid-state drives (SSDs). Due to CMOS memory technology, SSDs provide quicker access to information and retrieval times than conventional hard disc drives (HDDs).
  • USB Drives (Pen Drives): USB drives employ flash memory-based CMOS memory to enable lightweight and non-volatile data storage. For transferring and storing data, USB devices are often utilised.
  • CMOS memory is widely utilised in various embedded systems, including smart home appliances, smartphones, Internet of Things (IoT) gadgets, and digital cameras. These applications call for memory products that are small and low-powered.
  • Firmware Storage: In various electrical devices, including routers, computers, and other consumer electronics, CMOS memory is utilised to store the firmware, BIOS (Basic Input Output System), and system settings.
  • Smart Cards: To store and authenticate sensitive data securely, CMOS memory was employed by smart cards. Access control, payment, and identity applications frequently employ intelligent cards.
  • Microcontrollers: A crucial component of microcontrollers, which are utilised in various applications, including automation, automotive systems, industry control, and consumer electronics.
  • Graphics Processing: Textured data, frame buffers, and other graphics-related data are stored in CMOS memory by graphics processing units (GPUs).
  • Camera image buffers: CMOS memory is used in digital cameras as an image buffer to store picture data momentarily until it is processed and recorded.
  • Network Routers and Switches: Route tables, packet buffers, and other crucial networking data are stored in CMOS memory in network routers and switches.
  • Medical Equipment: For keeping data, configuration settings, and software storage, CMOS memory is utilised in medical equipment.
  • Vehicle Electronics: CMOS storage is used in engine control modules (ECUs), entertainment systems, and security systems, among other vehicle electronics.
  • Gaming consoles: For storing game data, settings, and system configurations, gaming consoles use CMOS memory.
  • Consumer gadgets: Various consumer gadgets, such as smartphones, tablets, multimedia players, and wearable technology, utilise CMOS memory.
  • Switches, modems, routers, and base stations use CMOS memory in networking and telecommunications applications.