Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)? Object Linking and Embedding in MS Word Semiconductor Memory Types of Parallel Computing Web Resources Difference between Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse Difference between HQ (High Quality) and HD (High Definition) What is Text Wrapping What is Timestamp? Semiconductor Ram Memory What is a File Attribute? What is a Video Call? Difference between SDRAM and DDR What is ANSI? Difference between DOS and Windows How to Set the Path and Environment Variables in Windows? Mainframe System What is ScanDisk? C drive in Mac Computer Memory Table How to Change the Keyboard Language in Windows? What is a Video Call? What is a Zoom Slider? What is Floppy Disk in Computer What is the most Popular Operating System? OMR in Computer What is a Work Area?

Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk


Although the devices evolved at different times, floppy disks and hard drives have played an important role in the development of computers. In contemporary computing, hard disks have mostly replaced floppy disks, but it is important to know the differences between the two to understand how data storage has changed over time.

Hard Disk

For the long-term storage of digital data, such as documents, programs, and computer operating systems, a hard disk, also known as a hard disk drive (HDD), is a permanent storage media. It is an essential component for data preservation and retrieval and is one of the primary storage devices in most computers, both computer and laptop.

Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk

Properties and characteristics of a hard drive

Storage Capacity: In advanced drives, the size of a hard disk may vary from several hundred gigabytes (GB) to several terabytes (TB). A hard disk's capacity determines how much data it can save.

Magnetic Storage: Information is recorded and accessed from hard drives through magnetic storage. Magnetic plates in the shape of circles are used to preserve data. Read/write heads that travel across platters to write and read data. Each platter is separated into track and field.

Non-Volatile: Hard drives store data regardless of electrical faults because they are not volatile storage devices. Thus, they can be used for continuous storage of data.

Fastness and Availability Duration: Because hard disks have a reputation for quickly transferring data, they are a good choice for jobs requiring quick data retrieval. Seek time—the amount of time needed for the read/write heads to align individually over the target track—and latency—the amount of time it requires for the platter to turn to the right sector—combine to form the access period for a given piece of information on a hard drive.

Persistence: Hard drives can withstand physical stresses, such as small vibrations and impacts, due to their relative strength. Still, they are sensitive to harsh environments, such as dropping them or subjecting them to magnetic fields.

Wide Variety of Form Factors: Hard drives, among other sizes, are available in 3.5-inch and 2.5-inch actual measurements. Where they may be employed depends on the form factor; 2.5-inch movements typically exist in laptops and 3.5-inch drives in desktop computers.

Interface: To enable faster data transfer, hard drives can be connected to computers using specialized interfaces like SATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) or, recently introduced, NVMe (Non-Volatile Memory Express).

Uses: The OS, the software uses, and various customer information, such as files, images, videos, and more, are all stored on hard drives.

Privacy and restoration: Many people use hard drives to protect data and backup. Essential data backups are frequently created on external hard drives.

What does a Hard Drive Do?

A data storage device known as a hard disk drive (HDD) uses magnetic storage, which consists of one or more rigid, quickly rotating disks (platters) covered in magnetic material, to preserve and access actual data.

Magnetic heads that are generally mounted on a movable actuator arm are used to interact with the platters. These heads analyse and record data on the platter areas.

Information is retrieved through random access so that individual record blocks can be stored or fetched in any order—rather than necessarily in the most efficient order. Essentially non-volatile storage, HDDs keep stored data even when they run down.

Since their introduction by IBM in 1956, HDDs have helped popular computers take the lead in secondary storage, thanks to developments in the early 1960s. In the past, HDDs have been manufactured by more than 200 companies.

However, due to Seagate, Toshiba, and Western Digital, most modern machines are synthetic, following a period of significant consolidation in the sector.

An HDD's efficiency and capacity are its main characteristics. Capacity is organized using unit prefixes that resemble powers of 1000. There are 1,000 gigabytes of potential storage in a 1-terabyte (TB) force (1 gigabyte = 1 billion bytes in GB).

The two most uncommon HDD shapes are the 2.5-inch, typically used for laptops, and the 3.5-inch size for desktop computers. Applications are connected to HDDs via standard interface cables.

Floppy disk

In the early stages of personal computing, digital information was temporarily stored and transferred using floppy disks, also called diskettes, a redundant magnetic storage medium. Floppy disks were the norm to store and share data from the end of the 1970s until the 1990s. However, floppy disks have mostly become redundant with the introduction of more sophisticated storage devices like hard disks, CD-ROMs, and USB drives.

Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk

Properties and characteristics of floppy disk

Structure: Floppy disks are versatile, round, flat storage media with a plastic outer shell. The diameters of 3.5 inches and 5.25 inches were the most popular formats.

Magnetic Storage: Floppy disks track and access data using magnetic storage like hard disks do. Magnetic sequences are used for maintaining data on a thin, flexible disk.

Size: One major disadvantage of floppy disks was their small storage space. The data capacity of 5.25-inch floppy disks was generally 360 kilobytes (KB), whereas the 3.5-inch version held 1.44 megabytes (MB). These are small resources by current standards.

Read/Write Process: Floppy disks are vulnerable to loss, involving data loss or fraud, because a read/write head is used for writing and reading data on the disks directly onto the outermost layer.

Persistence: Floppy disks were quite fragile and sensitive to shock, moisture and changes in climate.

Durability: They're easily ruined if dealt with incorrectly and are inappropriate for long-term storage.

Portable: Floppy disks were easy and light to carry around. Specifically, the 3.5-inch diskette was made to fit in pockets and rapidly transfer information between desktops.

Lack: Floppy disks have been made redundant by the development of more durable and reliable storage options. These have mostly been replaced by CDs, DVDs, USB drives, cloud storage and external drives. Floppy disk drives are almost completely obsolete in many modern computers, and floppy disks are rarely used in today's computing.

Difference between hard disk and floppy disk

  Aluminium is used to make the hard disk, a magnetic disk known as a platter.    Magnetic disks are turned into fragile, round plastic disks to create floppy disks.
  Yet solid-state drives are challenging disk drives in terms of expenses; hard drives remain the primary storage device in computers and are still in use today.    Formerly standard but currently extinct, floppy disks served as secondary storage technologies.
  Magnetic oxide is applied to the surface of the data storage medium.    The visible surfaces that contain the data.  
  The hard drive can hold up to terabytes of memory, demonstrating more storage capacity.  The floppy disk can hold a few kilobytes of memory, that is, little space.
  There is less chance of damage to the hard disk.  The floppy disk is more prone to breaking.
  Compared to a floppy disk, a hard disk is more expensive.  Compared to a hard disk, a floppy disk has a lower cost.
  Since the primary memory device, the CPU can quickly retrieve data from the hard disk.  The CPU took a long time to retrieve data from the floppy disk.
  The Walkman-sized hard disk that is integrated into computers makes them non-portable.  The floppy disk is conveniently lightweight and is the same size as a CD cassette.
  The ease with which a computer can now run a virus scan on its main memory reduces the privacy risk posed by the hard disk.  A computer virus posed a high-security risk to the floppy disk.
  The data is securely sealed within the computer case, so it cannot be readily broken.  The data is more prone to damage as it has come into exposure to radiation and dust more often.
  The platter contains the hard disk.  A plastic jacket contains a floppy disk.
    The information on the hard disk surface is magnetic points on tracks arranged in a concentric circle.    The information is stored on the floppy disk using electromagnetic dots on the track spots.
  As primary memory, the OS uses the hard drive to store various program variables and thus is essential for proper operation.  The floppy disk was mainly employed as a backup device to store copies of the data.
  Another term for the hard drive is a fixed type of storage, which indicates that it can't be moved.  The floppy disk is another name for a removal type of storage, which allows it to be portable to any position.
  Storing data on the top and bottom of the disk is impossible.  The data can be stored on either side of the disk.
  The primary memory of the fourth generation of computers is located in the hard disk drive slots.  The floppy disk reader that was a feature of the prior computer model has been eliminated from the fourth generation of computers.