Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)?

What is an App launcher?

A program that triggers the loading and functioning of applications is called an App launcher. Every operating system includes a built-in functionality for launching applications, yet third-party app launchers are easily available and commonly utilized on mobile devices. For organizing the home screen and app icons, an app launcher assumes the function of the default user interface largely on Android devices; however, it is also available for iPhones that have been hacked.

An app launcher is basically a third-party application that we download from the Play Store to replace our smartphone's default launcher. They undertake the duties carried out by the factory UI.

The app launcher on your smartphone is a crazy journey. The home screen of a native launcher will not be entertaining, but this app launcher will drive you mad with its multitude of unique features. It offers a ton of extra animation features.


The Application Launcher's several functional levels may be utilized in chunks or all at once. An Application Launcher scenario is a means of launching an application with the appropriate permissions and then transferring the end user's authenticated session to it. This may be as easy as making an explicit run-as-like call or, in certain cases, starting the program with specific parameters. When you start PuTTY, one of the preconfigured programs, for example, you may tweak the connection settings by using particular command line options obtained from the Privileged Identity secure library. The user may then use the application's session just as if they had launched it from their desktop.

This implies that no additional techniques or scripts are required for this to operate. PowerShell is another software that takes advantage of the execution context's credentials. PowerShell may be started locally by any user who has launch rights, or it can be launched on the Jump Server by choosing one of the various run-as options upon launch. Again, no scripting is required. Many of the applications that administrators want to utilize are configured in this manner. The package includes examples of how to use this.

For many more uses, much more effort is necessary. When you launch the program, a pop-up box may appear asking for your password, username, and maybe other information. Certain online applications need the user to open the browser and interact with the web pages using the Document Object Model (DOM) in order to navigate and input authentication data as if the system were human. In certain cases, delivering the data that Privileged Identity has to be done in combination with the usage of a script. The script serves as an automation layer, directing the given data to the appropriate part of the user interface of the application or website. A number of them have also gained "out of the box" support from us (a complete list of all applications, regardless of kind, that we give "out of the box" support is provided below). However, this is far from exhaustive. The scripts, like programs with run-as or command-line arguments, may be updated and extended to enable the system to start several new, comparable, or even more complicated apps. This will only need configuration upon deployment; there will be no modifications to our product.

All of this shows that the only thing limiting the number of applications that Privileged Identity can manage is the scripts' ability to connect with other apps and deliver the data those programs want from Privileged Identity. Although the list includes those that we handle outside of the box, it was never meant to represent an upper limit on what might be performed. The objective has always been to make it as easy as possible for individuals installing the system to add applications that match their specific business requirements.

With Google ChromeOS 100, a new feature called the App Launcher was added, which opens the app menu similarly to the Microsoft Windows Start menu. The search bar is located at the top of the App Launcher, followed by a list of your installed applications and recently used apps.

With App Launcher, you can provide staff members single-click access to all of their web-based business apps directly from the Employee Center.

After registering the custom applications manually and syncing all of your business apps from Azure AD and non-SSO, you may provide workers access to these apps. Via search and dynamic subject pages, you may get the apps from the Employee Center home page widget in context.

With App Launcher, finding applications is easier, and there's no need to utilize SSO dashboards for individual use cases, which increases worker productivity. You may handle the following categories of programs using the Employee Center Pro's application launcher:

App Launcher offers pre-built integration with Azure AD for SSO Integrated Apps. The registered applications in your Azure AD account may be automatically synced with the App Launcher if you employ Microsoft Azure AD as an identity and access management solution. The Employee Center shows only programs that users have access to utilizing SSO, like Microsoft Azure AD. You may sync registered applications and communicate with other SSO vendors using the App Launcher framework. For details on the activities, license requirements, and spokes that are required, see Integration Hub.

Note: Microsoft Azure AD spoke transactions are not subtracted from your Integration Hub entitlement and are excluded from the licensing required for specific use cases.

Non-SSO web applications: Manually register any applications that are not already registered in SSO. In order to control visibility, register the apps in the Web Application database and specify the user criteria.

Android Launchers

The ability to modify the UI of your phone is one of Android's best features. You may easily alter the style and feel of your Android home screen or app drawer, unlike the iPhone, where Apple controls the interface. All you need is an app called a launcher, which is also known as a home-screen replacement. It adjusts the operating system's functionality and software design of your phone without producing any long-term adjustments.


Launchers differ drastically from aftermarket firmware updates, or ROMs, which have affected Android's customizing culture since the operating system's birth, owing to their transience. A ROM is more than just an app; it's effectively an alternative version of the Android OS meant to take the place of the operating service that came preloaded on your phone.

Although ROMs give a powerful way of making major adjustments to the design and operation of your phone, there are limitations to employing them. It may be a tough and drawn-out operation to install, and you will probably lose the warranty on your phone in the process. Additionally, there's a slight potential that you may brick your phone, which would render it worthless.

Launchers have been increasingly popular in recent years, replacing the drop in popularity of ROMs. The simplicity of installation of launchers—download them from Google Play like any other app—has a large influence on this transformation. The ease with which a launcher's effects may be reversed is also useful.

An increase in launchers

One of two categories may be applied to almost every launcher: “design” or “smart." The main feature of design launchers for Android phones is the ability to alter the appearance of the home screen completely. You may create simple designs or more complex ones that resemble photo collages or carved wood. Additionally, you can program your phone to do unique gestures, like double-tapping the screen to launch a certain app.

"Smart" or adaptable launchers aim to display the most relevant information at the top of the screen when you get up, go on your commute, work in the office, and spend your evenings either watching TV at home or out on the town. Since they replace your standard home screen layout with a fresh experience, they refer to these launchers as "smart" launchers or home-screen replacements.

The design launchers

Firstly, let's analyze design launchers, which were the first form of launchers to acquire considerable support in the Android community. You may use these programs to entirely modify or personalize your Android home screen, which is accessible by clicking the home button or hotkey on your phone. This is where you keep app shortcuts and adjust your wallpaper and widgets.

Icon sets, widgets, and backgrounds may all be added to create launchers as a basis. These applications "unlock" existing design limits, such as the number of apps that can fit on a single home screen, to allow more comprehensive customization. With these programs alone, you can customize the appearance and feel of your phone to some degree, but downloading icon packs, playing with widgets, and seeking one-of-a-kind wallpapers is where the real fun starts. Icon packs modify the look of some or all of your phone's app icons. To use most packs, which are either free or cost a few bucks, your phone must have a launcher loaded.

Smart launchers

The objectives of design launchers vary greatly from those of so-called smart home-screen replacements. With the help of these applications, you should never have to search through your phone for the apps or information you need again.

Because they learn the applications you use most often, the majority of these home-screen replacements get smarter the more you use them. In order to recognize whether you're at home or the office and to display the relevant applications for each scenario, some even ask for your work and home addresses.

Although launchers are optional to have a great Android experience, utilizing them could be frightening at first. Nevertheless, it's good to experiment with launchers, as they may substantially boost and rejuvenate phones that have old software or irritating built-in services.

You should experiment with a few launchers, even if you're content with the way your phone is set. You may be pleasantly surprised by the things you can achieve with a new design or by how useful it is to have the apps you need easily accessible when you need them. If not, a few clicks will always restore you to your stock experience.

The strength of Android is customization. The majority of Android users like personalizing their phones since they find it impossible to picture themselves using and staring at the same boring home screen for more than six years throughout a phone's upgrade cycle (if you know, you know). Installing a third-party launcher is a good place to start if you're new to Android and want to customize your device's appearance.

Well-known App Launchers for Various Platforms

There is a vast number of app launchers available, each tailored to a specific platform and user's preferences. The most well-liked app launchers for different operating systems are presented here, along with information on their capabilities and contributions to improve user experience.

1. App Launchers for Windows

Microsoft Start Menu: This launcher, which is built for Windows devices, allows rapid access to recently opened files, customizable feeds, and seamless Microsoft service interaction.

What is an App launcher?

Classic Shell: A customizable launcher that upgrades the Windows Start Menu and enables users to bring back familiar components from older Windows incarnations.

Launchy: A lightning-fast keyboard launcher that takes minimal effort on the part of users to start files, programs, and even web searches.

2. App Launchers for macOS

Alfred: Alfred is a versatile launcher that blends system commands, calculations, and more with app launching. Its extensive search tools and customizable workflows make it a macOS user favorite.

Spotlight: Integrated into macOS, Spotlight offers users universal search capabilities via the system menu. This includes discovering programs, folders, documents, and even online results.

Quicksilver: Quicksilver is a quick tool that enables users to traverse between files and programs and even conduct sophisticated actions using keyboard shortcuts.

3. App Launchers for Android

The incredibly versatile Nova Launcher enables you to create custom tabs and folders, adjust the layout and icon, and employ gesture controls.

Action Launcher: This launcher promotes rapid access with features like Quickdrawer, which makes organizing applications simpler, and Quicktheme, which syncs app icons with the wallpaper.

Smart Launcher: With a focus on optimizing the user experience, this software includes an efficient application categorization system, a customizable home screen, and an automatic app sorting system.

4. Launchers for iOS Apps

A customizable iOS launcher that helps users personalize the Today View widget for simple access to apps, create custom shortcuts, and execute actions with a single touch.

Launch Center Pro: Designed for rapid activities, Launch Center Pro helps users build up shortcuts to often-used actions, contacts, and tasks.

Workflow (Shortcuts): This application, which is now accessible on iOS as Shortcuts, allows users to automate sophisticated sequences of tasks, reducing repetitious labor to a single swipe.

Some of the widely used launchers are as follows:

1. The Launcher Niagara: Unlike other Android launchers, Niagara does not require you to swipe up to locate applications or slide sideways to find apps. You may access all of the apps as soon as you open your mobile. You may search and launch programs alphabetically by sliding your thumb along the right side of your screen. Niagara's ability to show notifications next to the app icon alongside the app title is one of its best features. This lowers the distraction of using your phone as you can quickly swipe away the notification and go back to work.

The Niagara widget, which effectively works as an extension of Google's "at a glance" widget and offers you the day, date, time, battery life, and weather information in one handy area, is another excellent element of the launcher. In contrast, at a glance, it is entirely configurable and synchronizes with your Google calendar to indicate impending events. A few excellent features of Niagara, a freemium program, are concealed behind a price. It's incredibly affordable—$30/Rs 360 for a one-time purchase, or $10/Rs 120 for a yearly subscription—and looks excellent on your phone. It is among the best Android launchers accessible overall.

What is an App launcher?

2. Lawnchair: With Lawnchair, you can finally experience a home screen that begs to be called Pixel. It draws a great deal of influence from the Pixel launcher that comes with Google Pixel smartphones, infusing it with extra magic to increase customization. Although Lawnchair is open-source, the community has yet to have much success since the chief developer left a few years ago.

Lawnchair offers an abundance of customization choices to enhance your home screen, ranging from altering the size of folders to modifying the form of the icons. The enhanced support for themed icons—which is made possible by Lawnicons, another Lawnchair project—is the second outstanding feature of Lawnchair. Lawnchair is among the greatest Android launchers and is the one you should use if you want a more customizable Pixel-like launcher.

What is an App launcher?

3. The Launcher Hyperion: Another third-party launcher that is patterned after the Google Pixel launcher and performs a lot of things well is called Hyperion. First of all, it has a lot of functionality packed into its settings panel but is simple after the initial configuration. To start, you may personalize the UI to your taste by altering everything from the iconography to the background color of the dock, drawer, widgets, folders, and icons. Additionally, Hyperion has a themed icon option of its own to enable greater compatibility for themed icons.

In addition to the decorative components, you can add movements, adjust the Google search widget, customize the animations area, and download the Hyperion Dock, which allows you to swipe left to access the Google app feed. You may pay $5 or Rs 160 to access features like personalized icons, gestures, widget modifications, and more. Hyperion is certainly among the most feature-rich and clean Android launchers available.

What is an App launcher?

4. Microsoft Launcher: Microsoft does actually offer an excellent launcher for Android. When we first tasted it, we were... unmoved. It looks a touch cartoonish, which is why it largely reminded me of the launchers I used to use before the Android Lollipop era, but it's jam-packed with features. It enables you to adjust the home screen layout, dock, app drawer, and gestures. It also syncs with your Google Calendar to indicate upcoming events.

But the launcher's feed—which you can access by swiping immediately from the home screen—is its biggest draw. It shows recent activities, screen time, regularly used programs, documents, to-do lists, calendars, and sticky notes. To sync documents and other data, you may also log in using your Microsoft account.

What is an App launcher?

5. AIO Launcher: AIO Launcher runs separately from other Android launchers. It offers an information-rich layout on a single screen in lieu of a typical home screen. With merely a swipe, you may instantly access a range of categories, including commonly used programs, alarms, a dialer, a mailbox, and a control panel.

You may examine critical system information by utilizing the space at the top devoted to system information. In the interim, you may search the internet for contacts, programs, and even information by utilizing the search button on the bottom left. The rapid launch menu may be reached by swiping the search button or by holding it to show the settings. Custom font size, icon packs, UI tuner, themes, and support for Android widgets are among the additional features that may be accessible with the premium version.

6. IOS-16 Launcher: This launcher will be good if you want the UI of your Android phone to appear like that of iOS. Launcher iOS 16 features an appearance that is comparable to iOS 16, including animations, backgrounds, widgets, and the control center. Just like on iOS 16, you may hide programs and adjust various parts of the layout.

With the assistance of this unique launcher, you may tweak your phone's interface to appear as much like the iOS UI as possible. It is important to download multiple apps for features like the lock screen, Control Center, and Assistive Touch. But after everything is set up, the launcher resembles the default iOS launcher quite a bit. Isn't that what makes Android so beautiful? All it takes to explore a broad array of smartphone skins and UI designs is to download a launcher.

What is an App launcher?


App launchers play a very special function in the ever-expanding world of contemporary technology. These little instruments, offering a productive entryway to our virtual environment, possess the capability to revolutionize our interactions with our gadgets and software. With their ability to improve customization and streamline productivity, app launchers have become indispensable allies on our digital journey.