Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)? Object Linking and Embedding in MS Word Semiconductor Memory Types of Parallel Computing Web Resources Difference between Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse Difference between HQ (High Quality) and HD (High Definition) What is Text Wrapping What is Timestamp? Semiconductor Ram Memory What is a File Attribute? What is a Video Call? Difference between SDRAM and DDR What is ANSI? Difference between DOS and Windows How to Set the Path and Environment Variables in Windows? Mainframe System What is ScanDisk? C drive in Mac Computer Memory Table How to Change the Keyboard Language in Windows? What is a Video Call? What is a Zoom Slider? What is Floppy Disk in Computer What is the most Popular Operating System? OMR in Computer What is a Work Area?

What is Load?

What is Load?

Load in Webpages: The length of time it takes a user to view a web page or access an online service is known as the load time. The longer something takes to load, the more file requests and greater file sizes are required.

Load in Performance: When it comes to performance, load refers to the difficulties or requirements required for the computer, hardware, or software to carry out a job. For instance, the amount of RAM required for earlier games with basic graphics settings is less than that of more complicated ones from today. Games of today may include environments with grass blades, leaves on trees, additional textures, and other elements that load heavier on the computer and graphics hardware.

Load in Electricals: Any circuit or device that opposes an electrical current is referred to as a load in electronics.

Load in Unix Systems

The system load in UNIX computing refers to the quantity of computational work that a computer system completes. The load average is an indicator of the system's average load during a specified period. It is calculated by taking into account the number of processes that are waiting for CPU time, as well as those that are currently running. Typically, it takes the shape of three numbers that indicate the system load for the last one, five, and fifteen minutes.

In the kernel, every Unix and Unix-like system produces a dimensionless metric consisting of three "load average" values.

With a Unix shell, users may quickly get the current outcome by executing the uptime command:

The same three load average values are shown by the w and top commands as well as by some graphical user interface tools.

This data is readily accessible on Linux-based operating systems by accessing the /proc/loadavg file.

In order to conduct a thorough investigation of this kind of data, the Linux Filesystem Hierarchy Standard states that information pertaining to architecture is available on the file /proc/stat.

An idle computer has a load average of 0 since it is not counting the idle process. The load number is increased by one for each process that uses or waits for CPU (the ready queue or run queue). Every procedure that ends reduces it by one. Only processes that are either executing (on CPU) or runnable (waiting for CPU) are counted by the majority of UNIX systems. Linux does, however, also have processes that are in uninterruptible sleep states, where they are often waiting for disk activity. This may produce quite different outcomes if a busy or stalled I/O system causes numerous processes to be trapped in I/O. Examples of this include media that is excessively sluggish (such as USB 1. x storage devices) or operations that are blocked as a result of an NFS server failure. These conditions may lead to a higher load average, which indicates the amount of time consumers must wait but does not really indicate a rise in CPU use.

Systems compute the load average as the weighted/exponentially damped moving average of the load quantity. The system's previous one, five, and fifteen minutes of operation are represented by the three load average figures.

  • On a Linux system, reading the /proc/loadavg file will allow you to view or estimate the average load. The w and top commands allow the user to see the same three average load metrics. When a computer is idle, its load number is 0. Just the idle process runs when the computer is idle; this is not taken into account when determining the load number. All processes—regardless of whether they are actively using resources or are waiting for them—are added to the system. Every process in the ready or run queue raises the load number by one. At the conclusion of the operation, the load number is dropped by 1.
  • Most UNIX systems have processes that are either runnable or in the process of running. The ones that can be completed are those that are waiting for the CPU. These programs often wait around for disk activity. In Linux, the process that is in an uninterrupted sleep state is also included in the load number. Different outcomes came from several processes being stuck in I/O or from the I/O system being busy or delayed. For instance, the processes that were halted due to an NFS server failure or a media device working too slowly will also be included in the load number. Instead of signaling a rise in CPU consumption, the result in this scenario will be a bigger load number, which offers the consumer an idea of how long they may have to wait.
  • The system will determine the average load using either an exponentially damped average or a weighted average of the load number. The system delivers three average load values from the system's startup. The system also returns the three values in accord. An exponential drop is noticed. The drop is exponential by e every fifteen minutes.
  • Considering that the one-minute load average reflected 63% of the load from the full load in the preceding minute. And 37% of the overall load since the system's activation, omitting the last minute. For calculating the load during a five-and-ten-minute interval. It is comparable to 63: 37. In other words, it uses 37% of the system's initial startup for every fifteen minutes and 63% of the preceding five minutes for every twenty-three minutes, after deducting the first five minutes.

CPU utilization versus CPU load

Ferrari et al. conducted a study that compared numerous load indexes. Based on the duration of the CPU queue, he deduces several assumptions about CPU stress. He concluded that CPU utilization is inferior to CPU queue length. Given how heavily loaded the system is, it is better. It will be tough to ascertain the precise load level of utilization because the system will function closest to its full capacity.

On the other side, the user can learn more about the CPU's load via the CPU queue lengths. As an example, let's imagine there are two systems, one with three processes and the other with six processes queuing up. They differ, but they will operate at roughly 100% CPU utilization.

Load in Computing

The word "load" indicates the launching or running of a program by transferring (loading) the needed data from a disk (such as a hard drive) into the memory of a computer. The load time is governed by the quantity of information being loaded, the hardware speed, and the condition of other active processes. A load average, sometimes known as a progress indicator, is an average of the length of time it takes for a program or command to load or execute.

The amount of work that a system or device is handling at any specific time is referred to as load. It may be used to characterize network traffic, the amount of work a computer is performing, or the demand on a server.

Why is computing load important?

Because load has an influence on system responsiveness and performance, it is crucial in computing. Overly high loads could result in delays, slowdowns, or even crashes. Systems' capacity to handle the workload effectively and efficiently is assured by load monitoring and management.

What separates dynamic load balancing from static load balancing?

Static load balancing employs a predetermined configuration to share the strain evenly between servers. Until the distribution is manually modified, it remains fixed. Conversely, dynamic load balancing alters the workload distribution in real time in reaction to server performance data and real-time conditions. It assures the greatest possible use of available resources and dynamically responds to load differences.

What impact does load balancing have on a system's response time?

Load balancing splits the incoming strain over several servers, which speeds up system response times. Each server handles a lesser fraction of the load when it is dispersed, which shortens the time required to process each request. As a consequence, response times are expedited since the system can handle more requests at once.

What does computer system overloading mean?

When a computer system is overworked beyond its capacity or ability to handle the load effectively, this is known as overloading. Degradation in performance, longer response times, and even system malfunctions may emerge from overloading. To minimize overloading, appropriate load management—which includes capacity planning and load balancing—is required.

Is it possible to conduct load balancing without specific load balancer hardware?

Indeed, load balancing is achievable even in the absence of specialist load balancer gear. Within the system architecture, servers or virtual machines can be configured with software-based load balancers. These software load balancers divide incoming requests over numerous servers in line with established rules or algorithms, carrying out responsibilities that are analogous to those of dedicated hardware.

What impact does load balancing have on a system's ability to scale?

One crucial component in making a system scalable is load balancing. Load balancing promotes simple scaling out as demand rises by sharing the strain equally among numerous servers. The system may grow horizontally when new servers are added to handle the demand, guaranteeing that resources are used properly and that the system can support an increasing number of users or requests.

How is load testing done?

Load testing replicates a "load" or demand on your web application using specialized testing tools to make sure it functions stably. Transaction response times will be utilized by testing tools to measure your web application's capacity during a load test. Your software has met its full operating capacity if it shows poor response times or becomes unstable at a specific simulated traffic level. As a consequence, you must identify and implement a fix to this software bottleneck.

Development teams may easily monitor and investigate issues like these by utilizing load testing:

  • Rates throughout, especially those essential to sustain conditions of peak load.
  • Levels of resource utilization.
  • Performance of the hardware environment, including RAM and CPU.
  • Performance of a load balancer.
  • Consistency difficulties.
  • Errors in program functioning under variable loads.
  • Design flaws in software.

How many users can be managed by the software before it crashes?

Developers may identify difficulties with load testing, such as slow page loads, sluggish system latency, or crashes when changing traffic levels visit the application in production instead of after launch. An example of load testing would be a tax preparation firm examining the performance of their web application load ahead of the busiest time of year for income tax filings and the subsequent spikes in traffic.

How is load testing conducted?

The initial stages in running a load test are identifying the objectives for your web application and picking the load testing instrument that best suits your needs. The steps you should take to correctly incorporate load testing into your performance testing projects are detailed below:

Establish web application objectives: Setting an expectation for the size and volume of your web application is a vital starting step in the load testing process. Consider what critical aspects, like response times, resource utilization percentages, and maximum user load, need to be checked in production. This will aid you in creating accurate suggestions that will direct the testing method.

Describe the user's journey: It's vital to define how users connect with and navigate your web application at this level. Rely on monitoring data from any application performance monitoring tools (APMs) that your firm may be utilizing, if suitable. This will aid you in focusing throughout your testing on critical application activities and performance KPIs.

Choose a load testing instrument: Make sure the load testing tool you chose is scalable, user-friendly, gives correct data, and interfaces readily with other products your organization utilizes. Although there are numerous load-testing tools available, the OpenTextTM LoadRunner Family allows high-scale tests to execute on minimal hardware and supports the largest number of protocols, technologies, and application settings.

Best techniques for load testing

The actual testing may commence as soon as you've picked your load testing tool. The following are some of the most significant load testing suggested techniques to take into account:

At every step, keep the end user's experience in mind: This suggests that, based on different deployments, browsers, and devices, you should build realistic test cases or scenarios (both positive and negative). Additionally, keep in mind that real end users are frequently unpredictable. Hence, while designing your load testing, aim to account for unpredictability.

Set acceptable standards: Conduct preliminary testing in order to determine specific performance requirements. In order to construct benchmarks, you may also employ data that is already in your APMs, such as system-based data like Time to First Byte (TTFB) or user-driven data like browsers and devices. If specific app capabilities depart from their benchmarks, you'll know more exactly what areas of the code developers should focus on.

Do load testing regularly and early: Throughout the complete web application production lifecycle, load testing may help developers identify and fix code mistakes more swiftly. Therefore, it is advisable to start load testing early and continue to do so rather than waiting until your project is virtually done.

Stress testing versus load testing

Although they are both a component of software performance testing, load testing and stress testing target unique areas of web application performance. Stress testing is performed to find out how your software works when it is not under normal or peak load situations, as well as how it behaves when it returns to a regular state. Load testing is done to find out how your app will operate under typical and peak load levels.