Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)?

What is Passcode?

A password is a confidential authentication code, which is used to verify a user's identity. It is also frequently referred to as a passcode (for instance, in Apple products). Passwords were traditionally meant to be remembered. However, it might not be easy to learn the different passwords for every service that the average person uses due to the sheer number of password-protected services they use. According to the NIST Digital Identity Guidelines, the person holding the secret is referred to as the claimant, and the party confirming the claimant's identity is referred to as the verifier. The verifier may deduce the identity of the claimant when the claimant successfully uses a recognized authentication technique to show the verifier that they know the password.

What is Passcode?

Generally, a password is just any random string of characters, such as letters, numbers, or other symbols. A personal identification number (PIN) is the term used to refer to a comparable secret when the allowed characters are restricted to numbers.

Contrary to what its name implies, a password does not have to be a word. In fact, a non-word (in the dictionary sense) could be more difficult to figure out, which is a desired feature of passwords. A passphrase is a term used to refer to a memorized secret that is made up of a string of words or other material separated by spaces. In terms of use, a passphrase and a password are comparable; however, for increased security, the former is often lengthier.

One form of security mechanism used to secure devices and services is a passcode. Similar to a password, but with a reduced character limitation (around 4-8) with a character set frequently constrained to numerals 0-9. On a smartphone or tablet, the virtual keyboard only displays digits when inputting a password, warning the user that letters and symbols are not part of the character set. Additionally, there are visual signals that reveal how many characters are remaining in the passcode. These considerations make passwords significantly more effective at securing data on a device than passcodes.

Padlocks and smartphone lock screens that do not enable biometric security capabilities like fingerprint scanning and face recognition are guarded using passcodes. They may also be used to secure features or applications that have access to sensitive data.

History of Passcode

The usage of passwords dates back thousands of years. Passengers would be required to provide a password or watchword to be allowed in, and only those who knew the password would be permitted to proceed.

What is Passcode?

A man who is relieved of his guard duty is chosen from the tenth maniple of each class of infantry and cavalry. This maniple is camped at the lower end of the street, and he attends the tribune's tent every day at sunset. After receiving the watchword from him, which is a wooden tablet with the word engraved on it, he leaves and returns to his quarters, passing the watchword and tablet in front of witnesses to the commander of the next maniple, who then passes it to the maniple that is next to him. Everyone acts in the same way up until it gets to the first maniples, who are gathered close to the tribunes' tents. It is required of these latter to present the tablet to the tribunes before dusk. In order for the tribune to be aware that the watchword has been delivered to every maniple and has traveled through all of them before returning to him, all of those issued must be returned. He immediately investigates if any of them go missing since he can tell by the markings from which quarter the tablet still needs to be returned. The person who caused the stoppage receives the appropriate penalty.

The use of passwords in the military has evolved to include both a password and a counter password. For instance, U.S. 101st Airborne Division paratroopers used the password "flash" in the early days of the Battle of Normandy. This password was given as a challenge, and the correct response was "thunder." Every three days, the challenge and answer were swapped around. On D-Day, American paratroopers also famously employed a gadget called a "cricket" in lieu of a password system to provide a momentarily unique means of identification; one metallic click from the device required two clicks in response.

Select a password that is easy for you to remember and cannot be accessed by anyone else.

An attacker will often have an easier time guessing a password if it is simpler for the owner to remember. But difficult-to-remember passwords can also weaken system security because:

  • Users may need to write down or store the password electronically.
  • They will need to reset their passwords frequently.
  • It is common for users to use the same password for multiple accounts.

According to this, users will undermine the system more to the degree that the criteria for passwords are stricter. For instance, one recommendation could be to use a combination of uppercase and lowercase letters and numbers and to update the password frequently. Some contend that larger passwords with a greater diversity of characters provide more security (such as entropy) than shorter ones.

Jeff Yan and colleagues investigate the impact of providing users with assistance in selecting strong passwords in their work The Memorability and Security of Passwords. They discovered that passwords created by forming a phrase out of the initial letter of each word are as difficult to break and as memorable as passwords that are randomly generated.

A single dictionary word is not a suitable strategy; combining two or more unrelated words and changing part of the letters to special symbols or numerals. Another effective technique for creating difficult passwords is to have your custom algorithm.

Security architecture for passcode

Frequently used methods to strengthen the security of password-protected computer systems include:

What is Passcode?
  • Employing asterisks (*) or bullets (•) to hide the password while it is inputted or not showing the password on the display screen while it is being entered.
  • Allowing sufficiently long passwords. (Some outdated operating systems, such as early Unix and Windows versions, restricted password lengths to 8 characters, decreasing security.)
  • Requiring users to reset their passwords (a.k.a. semi-log-off policy) after a certain amount of inactivity.
  • Strengthening and securing passwords by enforcing a policy.
  • Deciding on passwords at random.
  • Minimum length requirements for passwords.
  • For example, "must have at least one uppercase and at least one lowercase letter" is one of the character classes that certain systems need in a password. On the other hand, mixed capitalization passwords are less secure per keystroke than all-lowercase passwords.
  • Use a password blacklist to prevent users from using weak or simple passwords.
  • Offering a keyboard input substitute (such as spoken passwords or biometric identification).
  • It requires the use of several authentication methods, such as two-factor authentication, which combines a user's knowledge and possession.
  • Using password-authenticated key agreements or encrypted tunnels to stop network assaults from accessing transmitted passwords.
  • Limiting the number of failed attempts that may be made in a certain amount of time (to avoid repetitive password guessing). Once the limit is reached, all further attempts, including ones with the right password—will be unsuccessful until the start of the subsequent time frame. On the other hand, this is susceptible to a denial-of-service attack.
  • Automated password-guessing algorithms may be slowed down by adding a wait between password input attempts.

Certain stricter policy enforcement tactics may alienate users, which might lead to a reduction in security.

How to keep your passwords safe?

Users and corporations alike should make an effort to get rid of common password flaws that threat actors regularly target. Given the rising usage of social media, any identifying personal information may be accessed by a determined cybercriminal.

Typical faults include:

  • Utilizing the phrase "password."
  • Integers in a series starting with one, as "12345678".
  • Including publicly accessible data such as home addresses, birthdates, family names, and pet or child names.

How often should one change their password?

Robust passwords are dependent on the expiration date in addition to the code and the user. Corporate password regulations typically compel users to change their passwords after a specific length of time, forcing them to develop new ones. Most password expiry durations are between 90 and 180 days. Clever password generation algorithms may also drive users to produce new passwords that vary dramatically from their previous iterations.

Strong password examples

The two most critical parts of a strong password are a diversity of character types and acceptable length. Security experts suggest constructing passphrases that are still reasonably easy to remember but incorporate many words and swap out numerals and symbols. As an example, the statement "I buy clothes from Westside" may be turned into "Ibu8clo8416wesvevese".

Security experts suggest building a difficult string by beginning a sentence with a letter and adding numbers or symbols to replace sections of the letters. Statements such as "I spend all my money on eating and drinking" may be translated into the form "/*-+Myf16ininF+-**".

Users may generate and remember difficult passwords with the aid of password management tools and random password generators. The security community encourages utilizing password managers despite the occasional fault in them.