Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)? Object Linking and Embedding in MS Word Semiconductor Memory Types of Parallel Computing Web Resources Difference between Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse Difference between HQ (High Quality) and HD (High Definition) What is Text Wrapping What is Timestamp? Semiconductor Ram Memory What is a File Attribute? What is a Video Call? Difference between SDRAM and DDR What is ANSI? Difference between DOS and Windows How to Set the Path and Environment Variables in Windows? Mainframe System What is ScanDisk? C drive in Mac Computer Memory Table How to Change the Keyboard Language in Windows? What is a Video Call? What is a Zoom Slider? What is Floppy Disk in Computer What is the most Popular Operating System? OMR in Computer What is a Work Area?

What is Reboot?

In many situations, when you operate a computer system, you run various programs to complete a specific task. After that, the system gets stuck after running various programs or software. In simple words, Reboot means restarting a computer using the Reboot option. It becomes needy when you install a new program or application, requiring restarting the system to install it successfully. Another reason may be that you must reboot the computer when your browser doesn't respond and your internet connection is interrupted.

On the other hand, in the computing world, rebooting is the process by which a computer system is restarted. It can be intentionally or unintentionally. Reboot can be of two types: cold reboot or hard reboot. In the cold reboot, the system's power is physically turned off and back on again. In a warm reboot, the system is powered up when it reboots.

Reasons to Reboot the Computer

Here are the significant reasons you are inclined toward rebooting the system. Some of the reasons are outlined below, clarifying the reasons behind the reboot.

Software Updates: Rebooting the computer is often necessary to fully implement many software updates, particularly those about the operating system or other vital system parts. This guarantees that the updated software components begin to operate as intended.

Driver/Hardware Updates: Rebooting the computer may be necessary after installing new hardware or updating device drivers so that the modifications take effect and the system recognizes the new hardware.

Security Updates: Security updates and patches for software or operating system bugs often require a reboot to fully implement the changes and ensure the system is secure.

Software Installation/Uninstallation: When you install or uninstall any external software, the system requires a restart to install or uninstall it completely. The software contains some data stored on the computer system that is permanently stored or deleted after a reboot simultaneously for installation or uninstallation.

Memory Management: If you run many programs simultaneously, it uses more RAM than normal RAM usage. Rebooting your computer clears the RAM and improves overall performance by refreshing the memory.

Clear Cache and Temporary Files: Rebooting the computer or PCs clears the cache and temporary files that improve your computer's performance and stability.

Unresponsive Programs: Various opened programs occasionally hang or stop responding to the computer system. You cannot make any changes on the computer screen; now, you may hardly reboot your system to resolve this issue.

Rebooting can solve a lot of problems, but it might not solve every one of them. Rebooting your system may not solve the issues you encounter frequently, or it may be a sign of underlying hardware or software issues that require more research.

How to Reboot/Restart a computer

Many ways allow you to reboot a computer system; we will emphasize all the tricks here. You may consider every step one by one to restart the computer.

Method 1: Using the Power Button

  • Press the Power button for 5 seconds.
  • After that, the system will automatically shut down.
  • After a couple of seconds, power on the computer.
  • Now, your system is rebooted.

Method 2: Using Start Menu

  • Click on the Start menu and place the mouse cursor on the Power menu.
  • From here, go with the Restart option.
What is Reboot?
  • It will take a while, and now your computer is restarted.

Method 3: Using Keyboard Shortcuts

  • Press the Ctrl+Alt+Delete buttons from your keyboard.
  • Now, a new window will appear with some options.
  • From here, click on the power button from the bottom right side.
  • After that, choose the Restart option.

Method 4: Using CMD (Command Prompt)

  • In the search bar, type cmd and hit the Enter button.
  • In the Command Prompt, type shutdown /r and click the enter button.
What is Reboot?
  • Finally, your system will be restarted.

Additional shortcuts

  • Use shutdown -r now for immediate reboot.
  • Go with shutdown -r +5 for reboot after 5 minutes.

Restart vs Reboot

Restart refers to shutting down a system and automatically turning it back on. On the other hand, Reboot is frequently used synonymously in the context of computers. However, there might be a slight difference in some situations outlined here.

Restarting is the process of turning off a computer or other device like an Android Phone and having it turn on by itself, starting a new boot cycle.Rebooting is the same as restarting in that it involves turning off the computer or device and turning it back on immediately.
It entails completely shutting down the operating system, terminating all open applications, and performing a reset, which makes it restart.Reboot enables a computer to turn off and back on the system by cycling its power or services, reloading the kernel, and restarting the system.
Restarting the computer allows for a fresh start without shutting off the power to the hardware. It is frequently used to install system updates, fix software problems, or clear temporary memory.Reboot is frequently used to describe the act of restarting a computer or other electronic device to finish installing new software, applying system updates, or fixing problems that may have occurred during regular operation.

These restart and reboot terms are used regularly, particularly when restarting or refreshing a device to fix software problems or install updates. But occasionally, the term reboot refers to a more purposeful or targeted restart for a particular objective, like applying changes or resolving technical issues.

Cold vs Warm Reboot

  • Cold Boot: In the context of IBM computers, a cold boot is a boot process where the computer begins unpowered and runs a power-on self-test (POST). The operating system or third-party software can start a cold boot; in Windows 9x, the restart command starts a cold reboot using the Shift key.
  • Warm Boot: The BIOS initiates a warm boot when the Ctrl+Alt+Delete key combination is pressed. Either directly through BIOS interrupt INT 19h or via. It doesn't carry out a POST. Malware can prevent a warm boot by intercepting and preventing the Ctrl + Alt + Delete keys from reaching the BIOS. Likewise, the Windows NT family of operating systems keeps the combination of keys for internal use.

What Does Mean by Hard Reboot?

A hard reboot, sometimes called a hard reset or power cycle, forces a device to restart by cutting off its power supply. This method is used when a device freezes or becomes unresponsive, and the standard reboot or restart procedure is not working. Here is how hard reboot performs on various devices:

On Smartphones: A hard reboot for most smartphones and tablets entails pressing a few buttons simultaneously for a predetermined time. To turn off and restart the device, this combination typically entails pushing and holding down the power button in addition to one or more other buttons, such as home or volume up/down buttons. The button combination may change based on the brand and model of the smartphone.

On Computers: In computers, a hard reboot consists of disconnecting the power supply from the computer. To apply the hard reboot on your computer, hold down the power button for a few seconds until the computer completely shuts down automatically. Then, wait for a minute until the system turns it back on.

Note: Go with the hard reboot as the last option when a device has stopped or is not responding. Hard reboots, however, have the chance to damage applications or the operating system in addition to erasing any data that hasn't been saved. Before using the har reboot, execute the restarts or troubleshooting techniques.

Rebooting the Mobile Phone

When a mobile phone is restarted, the device's operating system is turned off, and a new boot cycle is automatically started, effectively turning the phone off and back on.

It's used to apply system updates, fix software bugs, or do a clean restart without shutting down the device.

Steps to Reboot an Android Phone

  • To restart a phone, press the power button for 5 to 6 seconds.
  • Tap on the Restart option, and wait 1 to 2 minutes.
  • After that, your smartphone is turned off and gets back on automatically.

Note: Depending on the model of your phone or tablet, there may be some differences in the steps involved in restarting it. You can check the user manual for detailed instructions if your device's actions don't work.