Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)? Object Linking and Embedding in MS Word Semiconductor Memory Types of Parallel Computing Web Resources Difference between Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse Difference between HQ (High Quality) and HD (High Definition) What is Text Wrapping What is Timestamp? Semiconductor Ram Memory What is a File Attribute? What is a Video Call? Difference between SDRAM and DDR What is ANSI? Difference between DOS and Windows How to Set the Path and Environment Variables in Windows? Mainframe System What is ScanDisk? C drive in Mac Computer Memory Table How to Change the Keyboard Language in Windows? What is a Video Call? What is a Zoom Slider? What is Floppy Disk in Computer What is the most Popular Operating System? OMR in Computer What is a Work Area?

What is Registry?

Whenever you download and install a new program or software, its data and information are created in the registry as a subkey. This registry term is also known as Windows Registry. In other words, Windows Registry is a hierarchical database that holds configurations and settings for the hardware, installed software, operating system, and user preferences of the Windows operating system. It keeps data in the form of keys, subkeys, and values.

What is Registry?

Modifying the Registry should be done carefully because changes can affect how installed applications and the operating system behave. Incorrect modifications to the Registry may result in complete system failure. The Windows Run dialogue box's regedit command allows users to access the Registry. They can view, edit, and remove keys and values. But, it's crucial to remember that making changes to the Registry without the necessary information can be a dangerous step in losing all the data, so backup your data and proceed with caution if you edit the Registry.

What are the Keys and Values in the Windows Registry?

There are two elements, keys and values, in the Windows Registry that are used to store and organize data. They are essential for keeping configuration settings for the operating system, applications, hardware, etc. They are often organized hierarchically. Here is an overview of the Windows Registry's keys and values:

  • Keys: The main folders in the Windows Registry are called keys. They work as upper-level containers that arrange data. They are similar to file system folders. Paths and names are used to represent keys. A standard structure of a path is like HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Windows, where Windows refers to the subkey of the subkey Microsoft of the subkey Software of the root key HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE. There are seven predefined root keys, which are pointed out here:
  • HKEY_DYN_DATA (In Windows 9x)
  • Values: Values are informational entries kept in Registry keys. They include particular data about preferences, settings, configurations, and other information. Every value has a name and an associated data type, which commands how the information is used and illustrated.

Here are the data types for Registry values:

  • String (REG_SZ)
  • Binary (REG_BINARY)
  • Expandable String (REG_EXPAND_SZ)
  • Multi-String (REG_MULTI_SZ)

How to Access Windows Registry Editor?

You can view and edit the registry, which holds essential Windows configurations, system settings, and other data, by accessing the Windows Registry Editor. Here are some ways through which you can access the Registry Editor:

Using Run Dialogue Box:

  • Press the Win + R keys, type regedit, and click on the OK button.
  • After that, confirm by pressing the Yes button in the opened pop-up.
  • A normal registry window will look like the below image.
What is Registry?

Using Search Bar:

  • In the Search bar, type regedit and click on Registry Editor.
What is Registry?

Using CMD:

  • Search for cmd or command prompt in the Start Menu and hit Enter.
  • Now, type regedit and click the Enter button.
What is Registry?

Using Powershell:

  • In the Search Menu, type PowerShell and hit the Enter button.
  • Here, type regedit and hit Enter.
What is Registry?

File Location of Windows Registry

Windows Registry files are located in various folders within the Windows file system. The registry's files can be found in the %SystemRoot%\System32\Config directory. The directory where the Windows operating system is installed—typically C:\Windows is indicated by the %SystemRoot% variable. These are the 5 main files known as hives: Sam, System, Software, Default, Security, and Ntuser.dat.

  • System: Holds information about the hardware and software configuration unique to the system.
  • Software: Consists of Windows operating system configuration data and settings for installed applications.
  • Security: Stores data about safety, such as user rights, policies, and access control.
  • Default: This consists of the initial configurations when creating a new user account.
  • Ntuser.dat: Every user that logs into the system has a unique registry hive with special configurations and settings. These are stored in files called NTUSER.DAT in the user profile folders that correspond to them, usually found in C:\Users\Username.

These files are arranged into hive files and are essential registry parts. Despite their separate appearances, they combine to form the registry database, home to various user preferences, system configurations, settings, and other critical information for the Windows operating system and its applications.

It is not appropriate for users to access and modify these files directly. To make changes, it is safer to use Windows' Registry Editor rather than directly editing these files, which can cause instability or corruption in the system if done carelessly.

How to Backup Windows Registry?

It is necessary to be cautious while backing up the registry. Store backups in a secure in a secure location and away from making any changes in the registry unless essential. There are two methods to backup that we are going to provide you here.

Using Registry Editor

  • Search for Registry Editor in the Search bar.
  • After that, click on Yes to confirm opening the Registry Editor.
  • Select the computer from the top if you want a full backup.
  • Also, you can select the specific branch to export.
  • Now, click on the File menu and select the Export option.
  • After that, choose the location where you want to save.
  • Give a name to the backup file and select All from the backup range.
  • Finally, click on Save.

Using Command Prompt

  • Press the Window key + X and select Command Prompt or Windows Powershell.
  • Type reg export <key_path> <backup_location> and hit Enter.
  • Now, replace the <key_path> with the path of the key.
  • Also, replace <backup_location> with the backup location.
  • Lastly, ensure the backup file where you have saved.

What is Hives in Windows Registry?

In the Windows OS, the registry is designed into a hierarchical database system that keeps the information about configuration settings and options for the system's hardware, software, users, etc. The registry is divided into logical sections known as hives. There are five main hives in Windows Registry, which are as follows:


It stores file extensions associated with programs and information about registered applications, file types, etc.


It contains configuration information for the currently logged-in user. It stores

user-specific settings data such as environment variables, desktop settings, and application settings.


It details the local machine's configuration and holds relevant data for all computer users, including security, software, and hardware settings.


HKEY_USERS contains subkeys related to user profiles on the system. In addition, stores configuration information for each user account logged in.


It keeps information about the current hardware configuration.


The Windows registry is an essential element in the Microsoft Windows Operating System. However, users must be cautious while making any changes or modifications in the registry. Throughout this article, we have discussed all the terms related to the registry, such as keys and values, how to access it, the file location of the registry, how to backup, etc.